1) Read the provided YAWP readings.
2) Watch the videos provided.
3) Review the Racism and Fear presentation provided.
4) Read the eyewitness account, Evacuation to Manzanar.
5) Read the Internment Camp Loyalty Questionnaire.
6) Read pages 804 – 811 of the US History online textbook.
Using the instructions above, the provided learning materials, and your own research:
Tell us about the No-No Boys.
Tell us about the Tuskegee Airmen.
Look at Figure 27.8 in your text within chapter 27. What is your reaction to the photo and the information about it?
What is your reaction to learning about the Zoot Suit Riots?
Would you have willing filled out the Internment Camp Loyalty Application? Why or why not?
Research the 442nd Regimental Combat Team and tell us what you learned.
Racism and Fear
Executive Order No. 9066 February, 1942
Executive Order No. 9066
Authorizing the Secretary of War to Prescribe Military Areas
Whereas the successful prosecution of the war requires every possible protection against espionage and against sabotage to national-defense material, national-defense premises, and national-defense utilities as defined in Section 4, Act of April 20, 1918, 40 Stat. 533, as amended by the Act of November 30, 1940, 54 Stat. 1220, and the Act of August 21, 1941, 55 Stat. 655 (U.S.C., Title 50, Sec. 104);
Now, therefore, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States, and Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy, I hereby authorize and direct the Secretary of War, and the Military Commanders whom he may from time to time designate, whenever he or any designated Commander deems such action necessary or desirable, to prescribe military areas in such places and of such extent as he or the appropriate Military Commander may determine, from which any or all persons may be excluded, and with respect to which, the right of any person to enter, remain in, or leave shall be subject to whatever restrictions the Secretary of War or the appropriate Military Commander may impose in his discretion. The Secretary of War is hereby authorized to provide for residents of any such area who are excluded therefrom, such transportation, food, shelter, and other accommodations as may be necessary, in the judgment of the Secretary of War or the said Military Commander, and until other arrangements are made, to accomplish the purpose of this order. The designation of military areas in any region or locality shall supersede designations of prohibited and restricted areas by the Attorney General under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, and shall supersede the responsibility and authority of the Attorney General under the said Proclamations in respect of such prohibited and restricted areas.
I hereby further authorize and direct the Secretary of War and the said Military Commanders to take such other steps as he or the appropriate Military Commander may deem advisable to enforce compliance with the restrictions applicable to each Military area hereinabove authorized to be designated, including the use of Federal troops and other Federal Agencies, with authority to accept assistance of state and local agencies.
I hereby further authorize and direct all Executive Departments, independent establishments and other Federal Agencies, to assist the Secretary of War or the said Military Commanders in carrying out this Executive Order, including the furnishing of medical aid, hospitalization, food, clothing, transportation, use of land, shelter, and other supplies, equipment, utilities, facilities, and services.
This order shall not be construed as modifying or limiting in any way the authority heretofore granted under Executive Order No. 8972, dated December 12, 1941, nor shall it be construed as limiting or modifying the duty and responsibility of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, with respect to the investigation of alleged acts of sabotage or the duty and responsibility of the Attorney General and the Department of Justice under the Proclamations of December 7 and 8, 1941, prescribing regulations for the conduct and control of alien enemies, except as such duty and responsibility is superseded by the designation of military areas hereunder.
Franklin D. Roosevelt
The White House,
February 19, 1942.
[F.R. Doc. 42–1563; Filed, February 21, 1942; 12:51 p.m.]
Source: Executive Order No. 9066, February 19, 1942.
JAPANESE INTERNMENT, 1943. – Workers picking potatoes and packing them into crates at the Manzanar Relocation Center for Japanese-Americans at Owens Valley, California. Photograph by Ansel Adams, 1943.
A Japanese family at the Manzanar Relocation Center for Japanese-Americans at Owens Valley, California. Photograph by Ansel Adams, 1943.
Internment / Japanese after arrival. Internment of 110,000 Americans of Japanese origin in camps (after declaration of war on Japan on 8 December 1941). – Japanese at the Manzanar internment camp (California) fill sacks with straw to serve as mattresses. – Photo, 23 March 1942.
JAPANESE INTERNMENT, 1943. – The Manzanar Relocation Center for Japanese-Americans at Owens Valley, California. Photographed by Ansel Adams, from a guard tower, 1943.
"In the detention centers, families lived in substandard housing, had inadequate nutrition and health care, and had their livelihoods destroyed: many continued to suffer psychologically long after their release."
– "Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians“
“In 1988, President Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act to compensate more than 100,000 people of Japanese descent who were incarcerated in internment camps during World War II. The legislation offered a formal apology and paid out $20,000 in compensation to each surviving victim. The law won congressional approval only after a decade-long campaign by the Japanese-American community.”
Excerpt from Qureshi, Bilal. "From Wrong To Right: A U.S. Apology For Japanese Internment." National Public Radio. August 9, 2013. Accessed August 21, 2019. https://www.npr.org/sections/codeswitch/2013/08/09/210138278/japanese-internment-redress
Zoot suit riots june, 1943
Modern-Day Zoot Suits
During WWII, the gov’t pushed for for mutual dependence, planned and coordinated action, and for civic-minded responsibility.
We were expected to preserve materials and goods in support of the troops.
The Zoot Suit and its wearer represented the antithesis of this public, patriotic sentiment.
A group of sailors on leave in Los Angeles clashed with a group of Zoot Suited young Mexicans
–Over the following days, several clashes resulted in stabbings and increased violence as more and more sailors and gangs joined in.
–Mexicans were hunted out and dragged from cars, bars shops, buses, and cinemas and beaten in the street with a ‘sadistic frenzy.’
When Hispanic Americans retaliated, police arrested only the Hispanics.
One Los Angeles paper printed a guide on how to "de-zoot" a zoot suiter:
–"Grab a zooter. Take off his pants and frock coat and tear them up or burn them."
On June 7, a crowd of 5,000 civilians gathered downtown.
By this time the mob was no longer made up of only sailors.
–Soldiers, Marines, and sailors from other installations as far away as Las Vegas eagerly joined in the assaults.
–Part of the mob headed south for the predominately African-American section of Watts and another group headed east for Mexican-American East Los Angeles.
Sailors in the armed forces patrol the streets with clubs, ready to fight anyone they see in a zoot suit. Los Angeles. 1943. Library of Congress
The police arrested dozens of young Mexican Americans.
"Why am I being arrested?" one of them asked.
–The response was a savage clubbing with a nightstick.
–Although the boy fell to the sidewalk unconscious, he was kicked in the face by police.
–Many were stripped naked and displayed on the street.
Two men, after being stripped of their zoot suits and beaten by US servicemen, lay bleeding on the sidewalk. Los Angeles. June 1943.Anthony Potter Collection/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
A crowd of zoot suiters behind bars. Los Angeles. 1943.UCLA Library
A Citizens' Committee was formed to determine the cause of the riots. They stated:
“In undertaking to deal with the cause of these outbreaks, the existence of race prejudice cannot be ignored.”
They also stated:
“The wearers of zoot suits are not necessarily persons of Mexican descent, criminals or juveniles. Many young people today wear zoot suits.”
Mohawk Paratroopers in war paint
Native American Code Talkers
Start of the War
March 13, 1938 – Germany annexes Austria
October 7–10 – Germany takes Czech region of Sudetenland
August 23, 1939 – German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact
September 1 – Germany invades Poland
September 3 – Britain and France declare war on Germany
September 17 – USSR invades Poland from the east
September 19 – German and Soviet forces meet in central Poland
September 28 – Warsaw falls to Germany
November 30 – Soviet forces invade Finland
US lost 400,000 soldiers in WWII and 600,000+ were wounded.
Red Cross kept blood plasma from blacks and whites separate.
Ironically, Charles Drew, a black man, invented the process allowing plasma to be stored.
Women’s Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) led to women receiving full status, equal ranks, and equal pay for military duty in WWII. Navy had the WAVEs.
Health of nation improved during the war.
WWII ended the Depression and unemployment virtually disappeared by 1944.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt
causes of WWII
1. Treaty of Versailles
A. Germany lost land to surrounding nations
B. War Reparations
1) Allies collect $ to pay back war debts to U.S.
2) Germany must pay $57 trillion (modern equivalent)
3) Bankrupted the German economy & embarrassed Germans
British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau, and President Woodrow Wilson on their way to the Versailles Peace Conference.
2. World-wide Depression
Desperate people turn to desperate leaders
Hitler provided scapegoats for Germany’s problems (foreigners, Jews, communists, Roma (Gypsies), mentally ill, homosexuals)
Kristallnacht – vandalism & destruction of Jewish property & synagogues
Wallpapering with German Deutschmarks
causes of WWII
The poor economic conditions caused by American high tariffs created strong anti-Western sentiment in Japan and were a strong factor in forcing the Japanese invasion of China.
In July 1939, President Roosevelt decided not to renew the 1911 U.S.-Japan Treaty of Commerce and Navigation, which was due to expire in January 1940.
Then, on July 2, 1940, the U.S. Congress passed the Export Control Act.
Together, these two actions effectively eliminated Japan’s primary source of oil, scrap metal, and other material resources needed for war.
These developments dealt not only a severe economic blow to Japan but also a humiliating slap in the face to Japan’s leaders
who felt that the United States had no right to pass judgment on them or to interfere in their affairs.
causes of WWII
Operation Barbarossa was the name given to Nazi Germany’s invasion of Russia on June 22nd 1941. Barbarossa the largest military attack of World War Two and was to have appalling consequences for the Russian people.
The Soviets were not ready to fight against the Germans, even though the Soviets had a large amount of soldiers, they were not equipped and were not trained to fight. After about a week the Germans had pushed 500 miles inside the Soviets. While walking through the lands of the Soviets , the Germans killed and burned anything that was in their pathway. Then by early September the Germans had the city Leningrad captive, and made sure that no one could get out of that city. Hitler made the people starve and bombed all of warehouses, which made all the people starve to death. The people of Leningrad ate the cow and horse food, and cats, dogs, and even crows and rats. People were that hungry to even eat the dirty little animals that run around in sewers, and could have germs. About a million people or more had died in the winter of the city Leningrad, but the city still didn't want to fall.
Hitler saw that the city Leningrad would not fall so he went to the capital, Moscow and started to attack there. By winter the Germans were in the capital, but the Soviet General Zhukov attacked back. This was because he had 100 Siberian divisions and the bad winters were there to back him up. When the temperatures had fell the Germans could not get used to it, because they were in their summer uniforms. The Germans ended up having useless weapons, tanks, trucks, and frozen oil and fuel. That winter Moscow was saved from the Germans, and the Germans lost 500,000 lives.
in the Pacific
Pearl Harbor: “a date which will live in infamy”
USS Arizona Sinking in Pearl Harbor
Surprise attack by the Japanese on American forces in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii
US declares war on Japan & other Axis powers
Historians believe that anywhere from 30 million to 60 million people died as a result of World War II.
Bataan Death March
The Japanese forced about 60,000 U.S. and Filipino soldiers to march 62 miles with little food or water after Japan defeated the Philippines in 1942.
Americans improvise to carry comrades who have collapsed along the road from a lack of food and water.
April 9, 1942- 70,000 Filipino and American troops surrendered to Japanese troops on the Bataan Peninsula.
General Homma, the leader of the Japanese forces, commanded that the Filipino and American troops march 62 miles north to Camp O'Donnell.
Those who could not keep up were shot, beheaded, or bayoneted.
About 54,000 reached Camp O'Donnell.
Some were able to escape, but 10,000 died at the camp.
June 6, 1942- the Filipino prisoners were granted amnesty and were allowed to leave.
The American prisoners were then moved to the city of Cabanatuan.
After WWII, General Homma was tried and convicted of these war crimes.
He was executed by firing squad by the Filipino and American forces on April 3, 1946 .
The Bataan Death March
Allied POWs with hands tied behind their backs pause during the Bataan Death March.
From left to right: Private First Class Samuel Stenzler (September 15, 1893-May 26, 1942); Private First Class Frank Spear (1919-July 9, 1945) and Captain James McDonald Gallagher (1915-April 9, 1942) are resting with hands bound during the Bataan Death March to Camp O'Donnell, Capas, Tarlac, Philippines in a captured Japanese photo. Their hands are bound because they were found to possess either Japanese money, personal photos, or some other contraband. The figure to the extreme right is a Japanese soldier, who the three appear to be listening to. It's likely Gallagher and possibly the other men were beaten soon after this view was taken. None of the three men would survive captivity; all were weakened by lack of food, extreme stress, and constant movement.
Fall of Germany
November 20, 1944 – Hitler abandons headquarters
December 16 – Battle of the Bulge; Germans begin counteroffensive in Ardennes
December 24 – Germans surround Americans at Bastogne
January 16, 1945 – U.S. forces freed from Bastogne
February 4 – FDR, Churchill, and Stalin meet at Yalta Conference
April 12 – FDR dies; Truman becomes U.S. president
April 16 – Soviets begin offensive on Berlin
April 25 – U.S. and Soviet advances meet for first time
April 28 – Partisans execute Mussolini
April 30 – Hitler commits suicide
May 7 – Germany signs formal surrender
May 8 – Western Allies declare V-E (Victory in Europe) Day
May 9 – USSR declares Victory Day
Fall of Japan
March 1945 – Allies begin mass bombing raids of Tokyo and other cities
July 16 – US successfully tests first atomic bomb
July 26 – Potsdam Declaration signed
August 6 – US drops atomic bomb on Hiroshima
August 8 – USSR enters war against Japan
August 9 – US drops atomic bomb on Nagasaki; USSR invades Manchuria
August 15 – Hirohito announces Japan’s surrender
September 2 – Japan signs formal surrender
August 6, 1945: An atomic bomb is dropped on Hiroshima.
The “Little Boy” bomb was the second nuclear device detonated in history. “Little Boy”” measured three meters long and less than a meter wide. It weighed around 4,400 kilograms. And it killed over 140,000 people, 60,000 as a result of the initial blast. Weeks before the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (and after the successful Trinity test), President Truman wrote in his diary:
We have discovered the most terrible bomb in the history of the world.
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