The link above explains what and how it's used
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The goal of Packback is to create a community where everyone is sharing questions that foster valuable discussion, challenge existing ways of looking at the world, and uncover brilliant new ideas for applying class learning to the real world.These are the 3 components of a GREAT question to post on Packback:
This week your task is to consider what you have learned about the influence of growth mindsets on both students and educators and think about how you will show your students that you believe in them as you create the culture and climate in your own classroom.
Prior to participating in this discussion form, take a moment to reflect on the resources you reviewed in this week’s instructor guidance from the vantage point of the career in education that you wish to pursue then craft a stimulating question around the influence of mindset on students and educators or the impact of an educator’s belief in self or others.
Prior to beginning work on this discussion forum,
· Read Chapter 2: Today’s Students and Chapter 3: Addressing Learners’ Individual Needs in your Introduction to Teaching: Making a Difference in Student Learning Review the background information for this week’s discussion topic in the Packback Discussion Forum Guidance section below.
· Follow the directions in the task section of the Packback Discussion Forum Guidance section below
This week, you will be introduced to Carol Dweck’s concept of a “Growth Mindset”. You will also explore how you plan on showing your future students that you believe in them. The purpose of this week is to get you to start talking about how you plan on situating your thoughts so that you are able to serve your students and help them grow by remaining in a mindset that invites growth yourself. The most important thing to keep in mind is that there is no right or wrong to your responses.
Growth vs. Fixed Mindset
If you are unfamiliar with the concept, take a moment to watch the Fixed Mindset Vs. Growth Mindset (Links to an external site.) video
Now that we have your attention and you are curious about the growth mindset. Read Annely Clarke’s short article Growth Mindset (Links to an external site.) that compares fixed and growth mindsets. It is particularly interesting because it provides strategies to help develop a growth mindset. Every so often a truly groundbreaking idea comes along. Growth mindset is one of them. Growth mindset explains
· Why brains and talent do not bring success.
· How they can stand in the way of it.
· Why praising brains and talent does not foster self-esteem and accomplishment but jeopardizes them.
· How teaching a simple idea about the brain raises grades and productivity.
· What all great CEOs, parents, teachers, athletes know.
Mindset is a simple idea discovered by world-renowned Stanford University psychologist Carol Dweck in decades of research on achievement and success it is a simple idea that makes all the difference.
In a fixed mindset, people believe their basic qualities, like their intelligence or talent, are simply fixed traits. They spend their time documenting their intelligence or talent instead of developing them. They also believe that talent alone creates success… without effort. They are wrong!
In a growth mindset, people believe that their most basic abilities can be developed through dedication and hard work—brains and talent are just the starting point. This view creates a love of learning and a resilience that is essential for any great accomplishment. Virtually all of the individuals throughout history who have impacted the world on any level (e.g., Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr, Mother Theresa, Nelson Mandela, Abraham Lincoln, etc.) have operated in a growth mindset.
In Carol Dweck’s article, Growth Mindset, Revisited (Links to an external site.), she explores not just students, but the mindset of the educator. Her premise is that it is just as important for educators to have a growth mindset as it is for their students to have one. In essence, we cannot promote a growth mindset in the students we serve if we operate from a fixed position.
Take some time to explore Mindset Works’ Teacher Practices: How Praise and Feedback Impact Student Outcomes (Links to an external site.) to learn more about things you can do to promote a growth mindset.
Do You Believe?
Do you want to feel inspired? Watch this video of Dalton Sherman's famous keynote speech:
At the time of this speech in 2008, Dalton was a young boy entering into the fifth (5th) grade. This 10-year-old stood up in front of 17,000 educators from the Dallas Texas area and challenged them to believe in him and his classmates. Seven years later and now a young man, Dalton again addressed educators at the Extra Yard for Teacher summit in 2015 with his “Don’t Lose Your Joy” speech in the following video:
Consider what you know about the influence of mindset on both student and educator and think about how you will show your students that you believe in them as you create the culture and climate in your own classroom.
Teacher Interview: Michele Clarke
Michele Clarke has been teaching four-year olds at William Paca Elementary School for five years. The school is located around the corner from FedEx Field in Prince George’s County, Maryland, where Washington’s National Football League team plays its home games. Approximately 500 students attend this Title I school, with some students beginning as threeyear- olds in Head Start and remaining through grade 6. Paca is a choice school to which parents can transfer their children if they are in a school that has not met adequate yearly progress (AYP). Four in five students qualify for free and reduced lunch, and the families are very transient, moving in and out of the school’s boundaries. Ms. Clarke had previously worked in a school system where family incomes were fairly high. She chose to move to a school in which families had lower incomes because she believed that she could help young students develop the basic skills required for future success in school. In the next section she describes the diversity of her classroom and the challenges and joy of teaching students who are from a different racial group than her own.
What is the diversity of your classroom?
The students in my classroom are primarily African American, but 3 of the 31 students are Hispanic, and 1 student has parents from Nigeria. All students are income qualified and eligible for free and reduced-price meals. Two students have speech IEPs. For some reason, there are more boys in my two classes than girls. This year there are only four girls in each preschool class. Two of the Hispanic students are in families that use Spanish at home. In the past, I have had Muslim students, but not this year as far as I know.
What do you find most challenging about the diversity in your classroom?
It is a little bit more challenging to meet the needs of the children with the IEPs. Another challenge is making sure the English-language learners understand what I am teaching. Many of my students enter school with fewer academic skills than in schools where the families are more affluent. At the beginning of the year, I had five children who did not know their colors and shapes, let alone their letters. Many of the students do not have the prior knowledge to recognize their name in print.
What do you enjoy most about teaching students from diverse groups?
I enjoy seeing them learn new things to mark their improvement. I like the fact that your efforts are appreciated. For example, when I give the students books, both the students and their parents appreciate it; they don’t take it for granted. I have had parents and grandparents tell me that I have helped their children and grandchildren learn and convinced them that they really want to come to school.
Questions to Consider
1. How does Ms. Clarke’s class differ from schools with which you are familiar?
2. How prepared do you think you are to work in the setting where Ms. Clarke teaches?
3. What do you want to make sure you learn before you begin to work in a school with students from a number of diverse groups different from your own?
After reading this chapter, you should be able to
1. Describe how students’ race and ethnicity can be used by a teacher to develop effective instructional strategies for learning.
2. Identify ways that teachers demonstrate that they value and respect students regardless of the socio economic status of their families.
3. Explain at least three instructional strategies that are used with English-language learners.
4. Identify gender differences that will help teachers provide equitable instruction for both girls and boys.
5. List actions a teacher could take to stop the taunting and bullying of LGBTQ students in classrooms and schools
6. Describe the impact of the religious beliefs of students and their families on classroom and school practices in your community and state.
The students you will be teaching may be very similar to you, coming from the same racial and ethnic group, from families with the same socioeconomic status as your own family, attending the same church, and speaking the same language. However, many new teachers find their first jobs in schools with students from groups and cultures with which they have little or no firsthand experience. The students may be very different from them, coming from a different racial or ethnic group, speaking a different language, and/or practicing a religion different from their own. Very few schools are segregated by gender , so it is likely that not all of your students will be the same sex as you. You are also likely to have one or more students with a disability in the classroom.
Both students and teachers are multicultural. We are all members of different groups in society. Our identities are influenced by our race , ethnicity , gender, socioeconomic status, language, religion, sexual orientation , mental and physical abilities, and age. Being a member of one of these group impacts on how we see ourselves as a member of another group. Religion, for instance, may have a great influence on how we think girls and boys are suppose to act. In our society, race and economics define power relationships. Our identities are also determined by others who define us based on their observations of who we are and their experiences or lack of experiences with members of our cultural groups.
One of the keys to being a successful teacher is to care about the students in your classroom. A part of caring is to know the students, their families, and the realities of their everyday lives. This task is much easier in a close-knit community in which most families know one another because they attend the same church, synagogue, temple, or mosque. It is more challenging in large urban and suburban areas in which the histories and experiences of families differ greatly. At the same time, learning about the cultures of your students and communities can be one of the joyful parts of teaching.
The growing diversity of the student population offers teachers the opportunity to learn new cultures and expand their cultural competencies. To help all students learn, regardless of their ethnic or racial identity, teachers should learn as much as possible about groups other than their own before they begin teaching. Learning about other groups can be very enlightening and should become a lifelong learning experience. This chapter will introduce you to the student diversity you may encounter as you prepare to be a teacher and in your subsequent jobs.
Video Link Watch a video about diversity.
HOW RACIALLY AND ETHNICALLY DIVERSE ARE OUR SCHOOLS?
We are often asked to identify our race or ethnicity on applications and surveys. Our ethnicity is determined by the country or countries from which our families or ancestors have come. Race, on the other hand, is a term that groups people by biological traits such as the texture of hair, color of skin and eyes, and body stature. The United States census places the population into six pan-ethnic and racial groups: African American or black, American Indian and Native Alaskan, Asian American, Latino, Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander, and white. We now can choose the category “Two or More Races” to indicate our parents or ancestors are from different races. Still a number of students find it difficult to classify themselves into one of these groups because they do not see themselves as a member of any of them. This section provides a brief introduction to the ethnic and racial diversity of students in schools today, but further study of this topic is strongly recommended to learn more about the history and experiences of the students you will teach in the future.
Race and Ethnicity of the Population
American Indians and Alaska Natives are the indigenous or original people who inhabited North America. Today, 2.4 million citizens identify themselves as Native American, American Indian, or Alaska Native only. Another 2.6 million indicate they are partially Native American or Alaska Native (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011). The American Indian population identifies with one or more of the 565 tribal governments recognized by the federal government (Bureau of Indian Affairs, 2011). Most American Indian students will identify with their tribal heritage such as Cherokee, Navajo, Choctaw, Sioux (that is, Dakota, Lakota, and Nakota peoples), or Chippewa. An important part of their identity is knowing the native language and culture, especially the old traditions and Indian worldview (Horse, 2001).
African Americans have developed their own culture out of their different African, European, and Native American heritages and their unique experiences in this country. Most African American students are greatly influenced by their group membership. They generally know about the discrimination faced by members of their group in the United States. By middle school, they have experienced racism firsthand or know families or friends who have.
Chinese Americans are the largest Asian ethnic group in the United States, followed by Asian Indians, Koreans, and Vietnamese (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011). California is home to the largest number of Asian Americans—over three times as many as New York, the next largest state. They account for more than 40% of Hawaii’s population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011).
Before 1965, the majority of immigrants to the U.S. were from Europe. Today, they are from Mexico and Asia, changing the diversity in the nation’s schools.
Latinos come from many nations. The majority have ancestors or families from Mexico and the southwestern United States with roots in Spain, Mexico, and the indigenous tribes of the area. Others come from Central America, South America, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and other Caribbean islands. Many Latinos don’t identify themselves by race. Instead they identify themselves as American or by their family’s country of origin (e.g., Mexican American or Puerto Rican). They may or may not identify themselves by pan-ethnic terms such as Hispanic or Latino, which are used by the government to categorize the population from countries whose primary language is Spanish. Some families may refer to themselves as Chicano, especially if they are Mexican American and political activists. Maintenance of the Spanish language is important to many Latinos. Spanish is spoken at home by two in three Hispanic students, in part because it is the native language of a large number of their parents (Aud et al., 2011).
The Impact of Immigration
The immigration rate during the past decade has been 1 million persons per year (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011). Over half of the foreign-born population is concentrated in four states, California, New York, Texas, and Florida, and around 20% of the population of Nevada and New Jersey is foreign born. Large cities attract immigrants, with the largest concentrations being in New York City and Los Angeles, where one in three people is foreign born (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011). Non-metropolitan areas are also becoming home to immigrants. For example, the Hispanic population more than doubled over the past decade in Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Tennessee, South Carolina, and South Dakota (Passel, Cohn, & Lopez, 2011). As a result, schools across the country include students from different cultures and with native languages other than English.
The nations from which immigrants come have changed over time, primarily because of immigration laws set by Congress. When the Johnson–Reed Act was abolished in 1965, immigration from the Eastern Hemisphere increased dramatically. The largest number of legal immigrants in 1960 came from Mexico, Germany, Canada, the United Kingdom, and Italy. By 2010, the largest number of immigrants came from Mexico (13%), China (7%), India (7%), the Philippines (6%), the Dominican Republic (5%), and Vietnam (3%) (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011). Over 40% of the foreign-born population is from Mexico, 23% from other Latin American countries, 21% from Asia, and 9% from Europe (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011).
Another group of immigrants are refugees who have been recognized by the federal government as being persecuted or legitimately bearing persecution in their home country because of race, religion, nationality, or membership in a specific social or political group. More than 500,000 people were admitted as refugees between 2001 and 2010. The largest number came from Iraq, Myanmar (Burma), and Bhutan in 2010 (U.S. Department of Homeland Security, 2011).
The most controversial immigration issue in the country is that of unauthorized immigrants, who comprise nearly 4% of the nation’s population (Passell & Cohn, 2011). Some of these immigrants will be eligible to have their status reclassified as legal when they meet the requirements for employment-based visas, refugees, or being sponsored by a family. Unauthorized immigrants are most likely to be from Mexico (58%), but other Central American countries account for 23% of the unauthorized immigrants, Asia for 11%, Europe and Canada for 4%, and Africa for 3%. Although California and Texas are the homes to the largest number of unauthorized immigrants, they comprise 6% or more of the population in Nevada, New Jersey, and Arizona.
Children of unauthorized families cannot be denied a public school education. School officials cannot ask parents for their immigration status. They cannot be asked for Social Security numbers or other documentation that might expose their status. In 1975, the Texas legislature decided to withhold funds from local school districts for children who were not “legally admitt
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