If this was my paper, what would I change about the hook and why?If this was my paper, would I make the claim clearer and why?If this was my paper, would I provide any more definitions or context in the introduction, and why?If this was my paper, would I revise any of my transitions in the body paragraph, and why?If this was my paper, would I expand my conclusion and why?
The Benefits of Parks
Dalton B. Thomas
Saint Leo University
ENG-122-OLO3: Academic Writing II
Mr. Richard Courtney
June 18, 2022
Have you ever visited a state or national park? For many Americans the answer to this question is no. Living daily life in concrete jungles surrounded by honking horns, squealing brakes, and the sound of pedestrians walking close by are the most familiar interactions for most. For a lot of people, visiting a park isn’t even fun or something they would consider doing, maybe you’re one of those people. If you are, you’re really missing out because parks whether they be state or federally funded provide a lot of benefits to the people who interact with them and the community surrounding them. They contribute large amounts to the economy by providing jobs and services as well as bringing in revenue from various sources like park entrance and user engagement fees. On top of the economic effects, parks also provide various health benefits and mostly unseen benefits to society as a whole. Benefits like a reduction of crime in the area are less noticed but definitely enjoyed. National and State parks are a commodity that must not be mistreated or abused by people and something that everyone should be able to enjoy. The erection of more parks should be advocated for, to spread its positive effects through the country.
Usually when someone thinks about a park they think about a slide, some handle bars, and an activity area like basketball or volleyball. This is more common in smaller community parks and can leave a bad image in someone’s head. Why would someone want their tax dollars to go to something that isn’t providing much use or utility? They wouldn’t. If everyone was aware of the beauty and vastness of parks and how much they actually contribute, it may change their minds. National parks have had a steady growth of revenue, jobs provided, and visitors every single year for the last five years. “In 2019, visitor spending in communities near national parks resulted in a $41.7 billion benefit to the nation’s economy and supported 340,500 jobs. Visitor spending increased by $800 million from 2018 to 2019 and the overall effect on the U.S. economy grew by $1.6 billion.” (U.S. Department of the Interior. June 11, 2020, National Park Visitor Spending Generates Economic Impact of More Than $41 Billion). Not only does this contribution effect the economy it also positively effects the surrounding community. In 2020 visitor spending in local gateway regions surrounding the park was estimated to be $4.5 billion. Of this amount, approximately 30% ($5 billion) went into lodging, 20.72% ($3 billion) went into surrounding restaurants, and another 10.93% ($1.6 billion) went into gas purchases. (National Park Service, April, 2020 Visitor Spending Effects – Economic Contributions of National Park Visitor Spending). This impact on the economy can be broken down further by state to show which is contributing the most. This is lead by none other than California, who boasts nine amazing national parks, more than any other state. Objectively, they have the best national parks and ones that attract the most people. From skyscraper-like redwood trees in the Pinnacle National Park to the most recognizable World Heritage site, Yosemite National Park, California is chalked brim with some of the most wanted to see sites. This is all recorded by the National Park Service group which indicates that in 2020 “California had visitation of 28,645,839 people totaling visitor spending to a whopping $1.7 billion which contributed 2.7 billion into the economy.” (Unknown, National Park Visitor Spending Contributed 28.6 billion to U.S. Economy in 2020, June 10, 2021). This put them in the lead of every statistic recorded for National Parks beating second place, Virginia by 8 million visitors and over $700 million in visitor spending.
In America, obesity is becoming a serious problem. As of 2022 according to IBISWorld, the largest industry information publisher in the world, “the annual growth rate of obesity in the U.S. has jumped to 1.8% from 2017-2022. This year the adult obesity rate is 33%, one third of all adult Americans.” (IBISWorld, January 20, 2022. Adult Obesity Rate). Parks provide a safe, clean space for people to exercise without the social and physical barriers of the gym. Appealing and easily accessible green areas can motivate and encourage various physical activities. This motivation was proven by a research study conducted in 1995-1996 by authors from the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. “Results, overall, 28.8% of all respondents reported using POS (public open space) for physical activity. The likelihood of using POS increased with increasing levels of access. Attractive POS were 50% more likely to achieve higher levels of walking. To increase walking, thoughtful design of POS is required.” (Giles-Corti B, Broomhall MH, Knuiman M, Collins C, Douglas K, Ng K, Lange A, Donovan RJ. Increasing Walking: how Important is Distance to, Attractiveness, and Size of Public Open Wpace? Am J Prev Med. 2005 Feb 28). This proves that the more accessible a public open space is for a person to use and the more attractive and maintained that space is, the more likely people are to use it for exercise. The physical benefits of parks being abundant in communities have been discussed, but an equally important matter are the mental health benefits associated. Mental health is something that in the last decade or so has become some of the main focus for doctors and researchers around the world. Mental health is defined as a person’s condition with regard to their psychological and emotional well-being. Parks can help with an abundance of mental health disabilities and problems. It’s been proven that parks help concentration among children and act as a stress-reliever for adults. According to Nature and Health, “Nature can reduce risk of illnesses involving chronic stress, as well as promote a range of intermediate outcomes such as increase subjective well-being. It can do so in two general ways. First, natural areas and features can reduce exposure to challenging environmental conditions by increasing distance to stressors and/or decreasing their perceptual salience.” (Hartig T, Mitchell R, de Vries S, Frumkin H. Nature and Health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2014;35 207-228.) The research study goes on to provide some examples of how parks can reduce exposure to stress. These examples are as follows; 1) Green spaces in between traffic-heavy residences and roads provide noise reduction, 2) the use of vegetation and other greenery can hide displeasing structures, and 3) vegetation/greenery around housing can help maintain a level of privacy, and 4) feelings of being safe.
This paper is generally aimed toward the person living in a large city surrounded by concrete walls who doesn’t see much greenery or has no access to parks anywhere near them. Someone who doesn’t interact with parks very often probably wouldn’t care about the earlier presented points and benefits of them. While not everyone may care about healthy lifestyles for adults or how much parks contribute to the economy, everyone cares about their own safety. Parks have been proven to reduce the rate of crime in an area. This does come with one stipulation, parks that are well-maintained and well designed can reduce crime in an area while a poorly-maintained and poorly designed park can actually increase crime in an area. It is imperative that the maintenance of these parks be upheld so that they don’t turn from a positive environment to a negative. A team of researchers from Clemson State University and North Carolina State University conducted a study to find out if parks reduced crime in an area. The research began in 2017 and focused on the 300 largest cities in the United States. “We learned that more green space was associated with lower risk of crime across neighborhoods in all 300 cities we studied.” (Larson, L,. Ogletree, S,. June 25, 2019. Can Parks Help Cities Fight Crime?). An abundance of green spaces is not the only reason parks help reduce crime in an area. Contact with nature can help reduce the precursors to crime, being stress or aggression. Having a place where people can participate in outdoor activities actually promotes social interaction and the building of neighborly bonds within communities. This subject is not a topic we can only look at through studies or research, there are real-life applications that apply today, for example, New York’s Bryant Park. This park was considered a cesspool of crime in the 1970’s due to the rampant robberies, drug possessions, and even murders. According to park statistics, “there were roughly 40-50 robbery cases, over 50 drug arrests for possession and even one to two cases of rape a year.” (Citi Pond at Bryant Park, Crime at Bryant Park, November, 2021). This all stopped with the creation of the “Bryant Park Restoration Corporation, under the founding leadership of Andrew Heiskell, then Chairman of Time Inc. and the New York Public Library, and Daniel A. Biederman.” (Bryantpark.org, History of Bryant Park). This corporation closed the park for a five year renovation period in an attempt to reduce crime. When it opened back up, having the funds for supplementary park maintenance and public events, ranging from park tours to concerts reduced crime by an astounding 92% and doubled the annual amount of park visitors.
All too often we hear about companies spilling oil into the oceans, dumping waste where they shouldn’t and all around negatively affecting the environment. Every time one of these events occur it poses a huge threat to the wildlife in that area and can completely destroy entire ecosystems. One of the largest incidents occurred in September 2018 by the gas company British Petroleum (BP). An explosion occurred and caused the platform to sink, killing 11 platform workers and spewing millions of barrels of oil extremely fast for the next four months. “The leak occurred at a depth of roughly 5,000 feet, making it extremely difficult to cap the well. Roughly 1,000 miles of beach along multiple states were affected, and the fishing and shrimping industries struggled for the rest of the year.” (Luis E, September 23, 2021. Companies Responsible for the Biggest Oil Spills). Environmentalism is a political ideology that aims toward the conservation and preservation of the environment and the animals that inhabit it. Parks play a pivotal role in the preservation of many endangered species. These park preserves give the threatened animals a second chance at life, whereas otherwise they would simply go extinct. There are over 63 national parks in the U.S. that are aimed at the preservation of endangered species. The Golden Gate National Park spearheads the preservation efforts and houses the largest quantity of endangered species. The Golden Gate National Park houses 35 endangered, rare, and threatened species.
National Parks are great for the environment. These spaces have specific laws regarding hunting, fishing, and development. Bison and gray wolves, for example were critically endangered at one time. Yellowstone National Park in Wyoming became the largest roundup of bison and gray wolves (1993), no longer endangered species. Yellowstone also hosts geothermal pools (Grand Prismatic Spring – largest hot spring in the United States, Mammoth Hot Springs, Morning Glory Pool, Artists Paintpots Trail ), geysers (West Thumb Geyser Basin, Midway Geyser Basin, Lower Geyser Basin), waterfalls (Tower Falls Trail, Virginia Cascades, Mystic Falls Trail), and bubbling waters (Fire Hole River, Boiling River – 140 degrees), just to name a few sites. Probably the most famous geyser in Yellowstone National Park is “OLD FAITHFUL”. Old Faithful was the first park named in 1870 and has erupted every 44 minutes to 2 hours since 2000. Yosemite National Park is home to The Hetch Hetchy Reservoir which carries water to the San Francisco Bay area, 29 cities, and over 3 million people. National Parks with lakes, rivers, and springs provide natural drinking water, and rivers that generate hydro-powered electricity. Plants assist in offsetting carbon emissions, by maintaining the Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide atmosphere and assist in erosion efforts. Forestry protect water sources, stabilizes land, and prevents landslides, avalanches, and erosion. Wetlands are preserved, flooding is kept to a minimum, and assists in keeping natural river basins intact. Protected habitats reduce flooding, sea level rise, and storm surge. (Cross, L, May 16, 2019. How National Parks Benefit the Environment)
National and local Parks are some of the most beautiful places on earth, home to rare flora, fauna, and natural wonders, not seen anywhere else. The public has a responsibility to assist our national parks in benefiting our environment. Our motto should be “LEAVE NO TRACE”, don’t touch, don’t feed, don’t pick, read and follow the rules and signs, obtain required permits, use guides, and lastly do not vandalize. Keep our National Parks beautiful and intact. While everyone reaps the benefits from parks they don’t always appreciate them to the fullest extent. Parks are so much more than a place for kids to play or a place to relax. Acquiring revenue and contributing to the economy as well as supplying jobs for the local community. Being an open space for people to exercise and interact with other people to build bonds. Helping with some unseen aspects like the reduction of crime in an area. Our parks must be maintained and intact for everyone to reap the benefits.
U.S. Department of the Interior. (June 11, 2020) National Park Visitor Spending Generates Economic Impact of More Than $41 Billion. Retrieved from : https://www.doi.gov/pressreleases/national-park-visitor-spending-generates-economic-impact-more-41-billion
National Park Service, April, 2020 Visitor Spending Effects – Economic Contributions of National Park Visitor Spending. Retrieved from : https://www.nps.gov/subjects/socialscience/vse.htm
Unknown, June 10, 2021 National Park Visitor Spending Contributed 28.6 billion to U.S. Economy in 2020. Retrieved from: https://www.nps.gov/orgs/1207/vse2020.htm
IBISWorld, January 20, 2022. Adult Obesity Rate. Retrieved from: https://www.ibisworld.com/us/bed/adult-obesity-rate/112885/
Giles-Corti B, Broomhall MH, Knuiman M, Collins C, Douglas K, Ng K, Lange A, Donovan RJ. Increasing walking: how important is distance to, attractiveness, and size of public open space? Am J Prev Med. 2005 Feb 28. Retrieved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15694525/
(Hartig T, Mitchell R, de Vries S, Frumkin H. Nature and Health. Annu Rev Public Health. 2014;35 207-228. Retrieved from: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182443
Larson, L,. Ogletree, S,. June 25, 2019. Can Parks Help Cities Fight Crime? Retrieved from: https://news.ncsu.edu/2019/06/can-parks-help-fight-crime/
Citi Pond at Bryant Park, Crime at Bryant Park, November, 2021. Retrieved from: https://citipondatbryantpark.com/crime/
Unknown, Bryantpark.org, History of Bryant Park. Retrieved from: https://bryantpark.org/blog/history
Luis E, September 23, 2021, Companies Responsible for the Biggest Oil Spills. Retrieved from: https://www.ranker.com/list/companies-responsible-for-biggest-oil-spills/eric-vega
Cross, L, May 16, 2019. How National Parks Benefit the Environment.
EFFECT OF CAFFEINE ON THE BRAIN
Effect of Caffeine on the Brain of College and High School Students
Professor Richard Courtney
Effect of Caffeine on College and High School Students
The name "caffeine" originates from the German word "Kaffee" and the French term "café," which when directly combined translates to "coffee." German scientist Friedrich Runge extracted the first purest form of caffeine from cocoa beans in the 19th century (Jovel & Mejía, 2017). Once purified, caffeine is bitter and a white powder; its application has spread rapidly worldwide. Billions of people, including students, consume caffeine, one of the world's most commonly used products. It is found in about 60 plant species and is present in drinks such as coffee, green and black tea, soft drinks, energy drinks, and cocoa (Jovel & Mejía, 2017).
"Caffeine falls under the category of psychoactive drugs and is categorized as a stimulant" (Jovel & Mejía, 2017). It functions by stimulating essential body parts, such as the brain and central nervous system, enhancing alertness, and preventing the onset of fatigue. There are many benefits of caffeine intake for students and the whole population in psychological and physiological aspects. However, in recent times extensive research has been performed on caffeine and its adverse effects on the consumer's body (Jovel & Mejía, 2017). College students are unaware of the adverse effects of caffeine, although they are the highest intakers of caffeine. Existing research has focused on the health effects and patterns of consumption of caffeine. What has not been adequately covered is caffeine's effect on students' brains, the expectations students have when consuming caffeine, and the influences.
This paper will address the question: how does caffeine affect the mental processes of young adults in schools?. In this aspect, it will cover both the benefit of caffeine intake on their mental health and the adverse effects on their mental process while in school. Furthermore, the information received from this study can be used by medical experts to see the results of caffeine on the brain of young people.
In researching the relationship between caffeine consumption and students, the following factors were covered: caffeine consumption in frequency, attitudes towards caffeine and the expectations after its consumption, and awareness of the caffeine effects. Given the above topics on the relationship between students and caffeine consumption, the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as the theoretical framework for this research paper.
Ajzen (2020) describes TPB using three factors: behavioral, normative, and control beliefs. Behavioral beliefs are that a particular behavior will provide a given outcome. In this instance, behavioral ideas about caffeine consumption revolve around the expectations of using caffeine. This revolves around the withdrawal symptoms, positive effects, adverse effects, and mood effects. Finally, Bertasi et al.(2021) examined caffeine's short-term and long-term impact on college students. According to the study participants, the most common reason to use caffeine was to increase alertness.
Normative beliefs are the personal beliefs on the perceived behavioral expectations of others (Ajzen, 2020). These beliefs and individual wishes to follow others' expectations and desires to follow others' expectations contribute to the factors influencing caffeine consumption. Sherman et al. (2016) examine the effect of caffeine consumption during different times of the day. Most students consume caffeine in the morning to increase memory performance. In addition, the student used coffee when preparing for an exam.
Control beliefs are the factors that may support or hinder the performance of the behavior (Ajzen, 2020). In this study, control beliefs are identified by examining students' awareness of the various impacts of using caffeine. Raj et al. (2018) examined the effects of caffeine on an individual's moods, appetite, and physical performance. They researched 127 college students and found that students who consumed caffeinated products had appetite suppression, improved physical performance, work, and mood enhancement.
In summary, the growing overuse of caffeine among students should be considered a concern because the effects of caffeine on the brains have not been adequately covered. The Theory of Planned behavior highlighted the expectations of caffeine consumption and the results of awareness of caffeine.
Caffeine is a natural chemical found in tea, chocolate, and coffee and has stimulant effects (Raj et al., 2018). Caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive drug globally. The psychoactive drug alters the mental process and causes changes in behavior, moods, and thoughts. Most people consume caffeine to increase alertness and become more active. However, there is a limit to which caffeine can be consumed. Exceeding 400 milligrams of caffeine can cause adverse effects on a person (Richards & Smith, 2015). Most recent studies have focused on the impact of caffeine on adults. However, little research has considered the impact of caffeine on young adults in school and the patterns of caffeine intake that affect the mental process of young adults in school. My research project aims at filling this research gap. Students consume coffee to get through the day and night to maintain alertness in class and increase their memory (Raj et al., 2018). This review examines caffeine's impact on young adults' mental processes, preferable patterns of caffeine intake, and the limit to which caffeine should be taken.
The Mental Process of Young Adults.
The mental process refers to what a person can do with their minds; this includes; processing information, application, and knowledge construction. The reasons young adults are developing, and it is in constant use during the day and at night. This is because they are in school and must maintain alertness and remember concepts taught in class. Most of these students stimulate these processes using caffeinated products. However, according to Richards and Smith, young adults' minds are still developing, and psychoactive drugs like caffeine may slow their development (2015).
Positive Impacts of Caffeine
The food and drug administration (FDA) reports that approximately 50% of young adults consume caffeine found in food products, tea, coffee, and energy drinks. Research conducted on 127 college students shows caffeine consumption increases physical performance and alertness (Raj et al., 2018). Bertasi et al. (2021) elaborate that the short-term effects of caffeine are mostlyprimarily positive. These positive impacts include increasing alertness and cognitive function or mental processes. Furthermore, caffeine boosts an individual's memory and moods. A person will feel less gloomy and tired after consuming caffeinated products. Students become more alert and active in class. In addition, their short-term memory is more activemore involved. Some medications also contain caffeine that helps an individual feel relaxed and energetic. However, all the positive impacts of caffeine mentioned above occur if the caffeine is taken in the correct patterns and in small amounts.
Caffeine helps individuals avoid sleep and concentrate more on their work. To achieve such positive benefits of caffeine, it should be consumed in considerable amounts. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends that a person should consume approximately 400 milligrams of caffeine in a day (Richards & Smith, 2015). In addition, Sherman et al. examine caffeine's impact during different times of the day. The reports show that caffeine consumed during morning hours has more positive effects, such as memory boost and alertness, than caffeine consumed during late afternoons (Sherman et al., 2021). Exceeding the limits of caffeine consumption recommended by the FDA may lead to negative impacts on caffeine
Negative Impacts of Caffeine
Caffeine is a psychoactive drug, and just like any other drug, it leads to addiction. When the brain is used to caffeine, and the individual stays a day without consummating caffeinated products, it leads to severe headaches and irritation. Richards and Smith report that high caffeine consumption could lead to depression, stress, and anxiety in college students (2015). High caffeine consumption could also lead to appetite suppression and sleep disturbance (Raj et al., 2018). People should avoid high caffeine consumption since the overdose could lead to hallucinations, vomiting, and in rare cases, death due to convulsions. In addition, caffeine may lead to the slow development of the adolescent brain, affecting their school performance (Lu, 2015). Therefore, caffeine should be taken in limited amounts during morning hours to maximize the benefits.
Current researchers have focused on the negative impacts of caffeine that had been previously overlooked. Most people consume caffeinated products to increase mental performance and are not aware of the adverse effects of caffeine if consumed at high levels. Most researchers acknowledge both the positive and negative impacts of caffeine. The synthesis above shows that caffeine may lead to withdrawal symptoms such as headaches, anxiety, depression, and stress. Furthermore, it may lead to slow brain development. Lu, a psychological doctor, suggests ways in which individuals should escape the adverse effects of caffeine by using alternative methods to increase alertness and memory performance (2015). Exercising often and having enough sleep could help an individual escape the daily use of caffeinated products (Lu, 2015). Richards and Smith suggest that future studies examine the correct patterns to consume caffeine to reap its benefits.
This section of the paper will present the study design and the data collection and analysis method utilized to answer the research question. This study uses quantitative and qualitative research methods to draw results and conclusions.
A total of 200 participants took place in this research. The participants were from a college in California. All the participants were undergraduate students. Their average age was 21 years; they ranged from 19 and 24 years. 55% were male, while 45% were female. About 70% were Caucasian, 25% were African American, and 5% were Hispanic. The survey was conducted using three parts. The first section sought to see the effect of caffeine on the participants' memory. All participants chosen were not regular consumers of caffeine. After studying a series of images and pictures, the participants were given either 200miligram caffeine tablets or a placebo tablet. Saliva was collected before the participants took the caffeine pills. The samples were collected three, seven, and 24 hours later. The study was then repeated using different levels of caffeine (100, 150, and 250 milligrams) to find whether there was an optimal dose range.
The images issued came from different disciplines and contained descriptions and details. In addition, the participants were asked to write down what they could remember about the photos the following day. Some of the pictures presented to them the next day were the same as the day before, some were new additions, and some were similar but not the same. The participant was to describe those that they could remember as well as mark those that were similar to the day before.
A series of images were passed to all the participants, those who took a placebo pill and those who took a caffeine pill. They were to state whether the ideas presented were similar to the day before. As statednoted, some were the same as the day before; some were new additions, and some were similar but not the same. This was done in the presence of a camera recording the proceedings. It was a form of an interview. All the participants chosen were fewer takers of caffeine. As far as ethics is concerned, they were all instructed to sign non-disclosure and participatory forms. All the subjects were screened using a Caffeine Consumption questionnaire, and those exceeding 500mg of caffeine per week were eliminated.
The data was analyzed using various tools, including a Lure Discrimination Index. "This index shows the difference between the rate of "similar" responses given to a lure item and the similar responses given to the foils" (Borota et al., 2014). For the qualitative analysis, the phenomenological discourse analysis was used where various journals thatexplainedthat explained the experiences of people who are regular caffeine intakes. Raj et al. (2018) provided data on 127 students on research about the impacts of caffeine on an individual's moods, appetite, and physical performance. In addition, most of the students expected positive results from caffeine consumption but were unaware of the adverse effects.
Results and Discussions
The quantitative study found that most participants who took the caffeine pill could correctly identify the new images as "similar" to the previous videos but not the same. This is called pattern separation. This reflects a detailed level of memory retention. Had the study not used these similar tricky items, the effect of caffeine could not have been well highlighted. Using these items makes the brain take a more discrimination approach, which is enhanc
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