Final P roject: The Introduction
This week, you will develop the introduction section of your research proposal.
topic :Social Psychology of Self-efficacy
Running Head: REFLECTIVE ANALYSIS
Apri 28, 2022
Self-efficacy is a person's belief in his or her abilities to achieve a particular task. Enough research has been conducted on the factor determining a person's self-efficacy and having a positive-negative influence on it. Physical activity has been shown to have a positive effect on it. Similarly, in the academic context, certain personality traits (self-esteem and self-efficacy) have been shown to influence a person's scholastic achievements. Academic difficulties during adolescence and high school years have long-term implications on a student's academic performance and failure at this stage often results in academic failure, school drop-out, and difficulty in entering a successful career. Researchers applied a multifaceted approach to studying the role of self-efficacy in students' academic performance. Being proficiently active and possessing great knowledge of a particular discipline are two separate things. Oftentimes students are aware of the required action for a given problem, but cannot bring themselves to execute the actions needed to rectify the problem. To promote such task managing abilities, self-efficacy is required. Students' course selection, academic achievement, and continuance – all have shown a close association with students' academic self-efficacy.
Another study showed the relevance of high academic self-efficacy with high grades early in academic life and lower chances of getting dropped out (Di Giunta et al., 2013). If individuals are provided the sufficient circumstances to develop self-regulatory skills, it shows a positive impact on their academic performance. These skills are also regarded as personality traits. A Big Five model of personality has been proposed by personality researchers which includes agreeableness, emotional stability, extraversion, openness (boldness), and conscientiousness. Among the Big Five, conscientiousness (responsibility, the capability to plan and organize, persistence) and openness (positive attitude and meeting the challenges) are closely related to academic achievement.
Self-efficacy beliefs have also shown a direct association with an individual's happiness and positive attitude. Positive thinking is the foundational and fundamental element of optimism, self-satisfaction, and high self-esteem (Caprara et al., 2006). Whereas happiness is the difference between positive and negative attitudes of the individual. The research was conducted on 664 Italian adolescents in which a structural model based on adolescents’ inter-personal and emotional self-efficacy was designed. These beliefs were associated with the happiness and positive thinking of the individual. Results showed that inter-personal self-efficacy had a direct link with the individual's happiness and positive attitude. Self-efficacy also plays a significant role in determining and differentiating between the positive and negative emotions and their effect on personal relationships, thereby promoting a positive attitude.
Since self-efficacy is strictly about one’s belief, it is not restricted to academic context only. Physical activity has proven to have a positive effect on an individual's mental and physical health. But one question that often worries individuals is the right amount of physical activity that will help them garner the most benefits for physical and psychological health. Scientists and researchers believe all these discussions are pointless if they cannot motivate people for physical activity or exercise. To persuade people of this, they use social cognitive theory. The core variable of interest in social cognitive theory is an individual’s self-efficacy. An individual's capabilities have proven to be influential across a variety of domains. Physical activity participation depends on various factors – social, environmental, psychological, and physical. Self-efficacy is determined to be an important element in the compliance and predictor of this participation.
With the continuance of physical activity and passage of time changes in self-efficacy and behavior of an individual to former factors have also been observed. Self-efficacy is more significant in determining the active participation of the individual in physical activity and choosing the domain than to have in impact an impact on its continuity in the long run. It has also been established that a self of control is important for any form of exercise.
In this context, self-efficacy can be viewed as the nuanced form of self-control in determining the domain of physical activity. This entire discussion and research models show how important self-efficacy is in all aspects of life (McAuley & Blissmer, 2000). Self-efficacy determines one's standard of living, and how well the individual can improve his or her life. The question here arises, how to improve one's self-efficacy if it is low along with self-esteem and self-confidence (basically all personality traits that are essential in improving an individual's self-perception)?
Caprara, G. V., Steca, P., Gerbino, M., Paciello, M., & Vecchio, G. M. (2006). Looking for adolescents' well-being: Self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness. Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences, 15(1), 30-43.
Di Giunta, L., Alessandri, G., Gerbino, M., Kanacri, P. L., Zuffiano, A., & Caprara, G. V. (2013). The determinants of scholastic achievement: The contribution of personality traits, self-esteem, and academic self-efficacy. Learning and individual Differences, 27, 102-108.
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