Explain the meaning of the title "Victories Abound, Challenges Remain" in the LGBTQ movement since 1969. Who were the
important leaders and what were the important organizations, etc.? How were civil rights changed during this period? How were the arguments for and against
LGBTQ rights different than those for and against other civil rights movements you've learned about in this class?
The 1969 Sone Wall riots happened in Stonewall inn in Greenwich, an inn run by the mafia.
Jackie Hormona, Marsha Johnson, and Zazu Nova were at the center of the riots that lasted for weeks and often involved public displays of affection
The Mattachine was also involved in the protests. However, the group was seen to be out of date and new groups such as Gay Liberation Front were formed and took over.
Gay Liberation Front(GLF) was formed in 1969 in the aftermath of the Stonewall protests. It sought to link the gay rights struggles to other struggles in the US such as the Chicano and the Red struggle
The GLF also called for an end to capitalism and the building of Nuclear weapons
The Gay Activists Alliance was formed in 1969 and was a splinter group from the GLF
Unlike the GLF the Gay Activists Alliance was more peaceful and moderate and focused only on gay rights.
Nine months after the stone wall protest, police raided the Snake Pit in Greenwich. The major event in the aftermath of this raid was the arrest and subsequent death of Diego Vinales an Argentinian student.
ECHO organized a major protest in 1970 in Newyork City which turned out to be the first gay pride parade. Minor protests occurred happened in other cities such as Boston
In 1970, the Co-founder of the Balck Panthers Party Huey Newton gave a speech in which he supported the gay rights movements
Gay pride parades began to happen annually with the main agendas being calling for an end to police harassment and encouraging gay people to come out
1972-73 saw the formation of the group Parents and Friends of Lesbians and Gays
1973 saw the American Psychological Association change its position on homosexuality. It was now not considered to be a mental disorder.
1973 also saw the gay rights movements also change into the LGBTQ rights movements after the inclusion of bisexual, transgender, and queer people
The Queens Liberation Font took part in the 1973 gay pride parade. Marsha Johnson and Sylvia Rivera formed the street Transvetitie Action Revolutionaries which sought to help people who were confused about their feelings and identity
The 1970s also saw Politicians be involved in the support for gay rights, one of them being Bernie Sanders.
Kathy Kozachenko became the first open homosexual to be elected to office. She was elected to the Michigan City Council in 1974
Harvey Milk ran for office while openly declaring to be gay and was elected in 197. He was later assassinated by Dan White along with Mayor George Moscone in 1978.
The sentencing of Dan White for seven years following the murder of Harvey Milk resulted in protests in San Francisco
In1977 Miami voters repealed the Gay rights. This was after the mobilization of Christian voters by Anita Bryant. She urged them to repeal the gay rights so as to bring God and morality back to America.
After 1977 there were attempts to repeal gay rights in other cities such as Seattle and California. This was after anti-gay groups drew inspiration from the Miami repeal
1982 saw Wincousin become the first state to create a law that banned discrimination based on sexual orientation
The appearance of AIDS in the 1980s co0ntributed to gay backlash since the disease was common among homosexuals.
In the early 1980s, AIDS spread to the heterosexual community.AIDS was therefore a reason for the discrimination against homosexuals.
Larry Kramer created ACT UP to push the government to address the AIDS crisis. As a result, the government started to give facts and educate the public about AIDS.
The 1980s also saw monumental cases such as the Bowers v. Harwick case, and the Bower v. Lawrence all seeking clarification on gay rights and issues.
In 1981, homosexuals were removed from the military as a result Perry Watkins was discharged. He sued resulting in the Watkins v. US army case. The supreme court ruled that Watkins was irregularly discharged and he, therefore, got a settlement.
Part 15(Lecture 12)
Bill Clinton ascended to the presidency vowing to allow gays to serve publicly in the military. He is behind the “Don’t ask, Don’t tell policy” of 1993. This policy allowed gay soldiers to serve in the military as long as they do not speak about it.
The late 1980s to early 1990s saw the idea of recognizing same-sex marriages come up.
In the Baehr v. Miike case, two women sued after they were denied marriage registration by the Hawaii government. The Hawaii government opted to have an amendment clarifying that marriage was strictly between two people of the opposite sex
In 1996, the defense of Marriage act was passed. This act stated that the federal government act would not recognize same-sex marriage
Clinton issued an order banning sexual orientation prejudices in security clearance.
George Bush called for the banning of same-sex marriage, but the Republics could not sail
through with it in congress.
In 2016, President Obama lifted the ban on transgender people in the military. President Trump
would later reverse this policy.
In 2020, the court ruled that President Trump’s order banning transgender people from the
the military was legitimate.
Notes Submission #13
I) I’m not Crazy (Am I?)
Women could now vote across the country; the 19th amendment was a great victory and everyone in the movement recognized it.
Women won suffrage but they do not have a political appointment, position of trust, legislative power, executive powers,Governors and including wage equality.
After the ratification of the 19th amendment there was among a lot of women who had been active in the movement.
Seneca Falls 1923
Paul saw the 19th amendment as a step with still more work to do.
In 1923 she organized the second Seneca Falls Convention in on the 75th anniversary. She attended the second convention to reinvigorate the movement. She was pushing women to another constitutional amendment “Equal Right Amendment “.
Women in Congress
The percentage of women elected to state and local office hovered around two to three percent. Women in general did not run for office and when they did they did not get elected
Was a fast-moving decade of change in American life. it was a decade where industrialization became the dominant feature of American life. a new sort of job ghetto opened up for women “secretary”. Women where almost half of college students in the US. They were cracking into professions that had excluded them for all time. Women could own property; married women could keep their wages.
Most state by the 20s women can get a divorce in execptional circumstances. The divorce rate in the early decades of the 1900s.
By the 1920s one of seven marriages ended in divorce. “fourteen percent of marriage were ending in divorce.
Home economics teaching could help make women into good women again. It became required in almost every school system for girls only.
It was cultural effort put into place by law to try to counteract the changes that happening in the society.
It was a term given to the women of the 1920s were defying the cultural standards nailed it a Victorianism. They became significant as a cultural phenomenon in the 1920s. young women in that decade were engaged in a rebellion against the cultural standards of Victorianism.
They cut their hair as a freedom, they were makeup, smoke. All of these was shocking to older Americans. They were more liberate in their sexuality.
Women could not really mobilize for the next step of achieving equal civil rights until they broke through there cultural ideas about their own behavior.
Paul was upset that the movement did not proceed in order in which she wanted it to.
She was the first women to hold a cabinet level job in the state of New York.
She had been a member of NY’s industrial commission a part of the state bureaucracy that oversaw labor conditions for workers in the state of NY. FDR put Perkins in charge of that industrial commission. When FDR got elected president in 1932, he asked Frances to come with him in DC and serves the United Stated secretary of Labor. She became the first female member of a president cabinet when she became FDR’S secretary of labor.
In the midst of the great depression, she helped draft legislative and then convince the male members of the house and the senate to pass that legislation.
In 1935 FDR signing of the social security act, including three different programs,
First was unemployment insurance
Second, interdependent children (help single mother)
Third, aid independent children (social security)
She also guided to passage the Wagner act in 1935. It the law the finally made unions legal in the US. she guided passage the fair labor act which passed the congress signed by FDR. It created a national minimum wage all most every worker it the country, it outlawed child labor under the age of 16. It also said if any employer has to pay overtime 50 % pay. The word weekend did not exist until the fair labor standards act.
She serves as secretary of labor until FDR’s death in 1945. She was one of only two cabinet secretaries to stay with him the whole time.
One agenda that she was not able to achieve was national Health care which was blocked by coalition of doctor’s hospitals and insurance company.
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