Rewrite the paper attached (mid-semester paper with comments) according to the comments: 1. First, Introduce the myth because the story alludes to the myth – the myth is attached as a PDF file The myth can shed light on the story (this is the thesis – specify it in the introduction) 2. Present the original myth briefly and then try to compare it to the story using quotes. 3. Explore similarities and differences that may shed a new light on the story. 4. Draw conclusions about the comparison.
In “Cold Dates,” is about a woman called Shari, she is tired from dates, tired of small talk and she is trying to become the woman she thinks men will want. Shari is dispirited from the number of dates she’s been on, 88 and counting, without finding someone.
Shari's feelings of despair touched my heart, her frustration, and her helplessness and even she was willing to change herself to find love and start a family. She is in a situation where many women are in the world due to the technological world and other reasons.
This story is about a black single woman called Apple who wants to get married and have a family, but in the city where she lives there is a matchmaking system in which the father of the woman who wants to marry places a flag (in different colors indicating her age and wishes to marry), Apple does not want to use this method for various reasons. In the end, the desire for family overpowers her and she hangs the flag.
The story elicited feelings of sadness and helplessness for Apple, her strong desire to get married, her feelings of being unwanted by men implicit in the lines of the text and yet her stubborn refusal not to hang the flag. The text made me think about the situation of women in our current world who are currently in Apple's condition and don't even have a "flag".
Dr. Etti Gordon-Ginzburg
Children in Gothic Literature
Greek Myth in “A Marble Woman” by LM Alcott Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Motifs from Greek Mythology in…? The Allusion to the Myth of Amor and Psyche in….?
In the novella "A Marble Woman" written by Louisa May Alcott one can observe the integration of Greek mythology in order to deliver a message of collective importance. A myth is a traditional story that embodies beliefs regarding facts or phenomena on in which often the forces of nature and soul are personified. It also commonly held belief or the misconception that idealizes the reality. Myths belong to the general classes of traditional tales. Myths have been widely incorporated in literature, especially in the definition and elaboration of societal traditions. Source? However, it is worth noting that myths serve anticipated objectives, such as keeping people away from unethical practices or promoting morality. In this context, in Louisa May Alcott's novella "A Marble Woman" the myth outlined of Cupid and Psyche is reviewed while making the necessary comparison and focusing on the Greek myth elements, its mutual importance difference between ancient tale and other genres like legends and fairy tales. Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Allusions to Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Verb and Unclear wording Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: ? do you mean: alluded to? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: ? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: ?
Misconceptions describing the subject love and relations exist in the two stories. In the novella, “A Marble Women”, the female character gets married to a monstrous husband who at first was her guardian (Louisa Alcott 197), Psyche also moved from her father’s house to her husband’s house (McCullough 90). Also, there is love at first sight as stated,: “For many minutes Bazil Yorke watched the unconscious child as if there was some strong attraction for him in the studious little figure”(Louisa Alcott 136). Love is wretchedness or rather a mystery used as a mythic element in the novel. One of the character's’ experience is explained when Louisa Alcott/ states that “love makes half the misery of the world; it has been the bane of my life, it has made me what I am, a man without ambition, hope, or happiness.” (Peabody 150). Why are you bringing this quote? What does it aim to prove? In "A Marble Woman" Alcott states that love will bring either sorrow or happiness for one’s life.Quote? Cupid and Psyche had to overcome some obstacles to be together as husband and wife despite their differences (Apuleius & Edward). The scenario, therefore, presents aspects defining Greek myth from the relationship perspectives. However, it is worth noting that the given argument is applicable in a real-life situation. The stability of marriage depends on the cooperation of the involved parties. If they care about each other and communicate effectively, then they are likely to lead a happy marriage life and vice versa. Although the concept is approached as a misconception, it aims to encourage couples to participate in executing marriage goals to enhance happiness. What is the connection to the story? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Is Bazil Yorke really monsterous? I don’t think so. Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Indeed, but under completely different circumstances, and Psyche’s lover and then husband is the God of love himself and no monster at all Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: I agree, but Cecil is a child when he falls in love with her, whereas Cupid and Psyche are no children Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What do you mean by that? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: If this quote is not from the novella you have to say so here Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What scenario? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What argument? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What is the concept and what is the misconception?
The usage of elements of the myth in the Novel novella are manifested when love is portrayed to be a mystery, . Cupid was not a real human being, but some evil serpent-like creature and he fell in love with Psyche who also was superhuman and worshipped as a goddess due to her perfect beauty. It is expected that the evil creature would have fallen for a normal human being, but he did not, : “Mr. Yorke had love trouble and can’t bear women, so none dare goes near him,” or Psyche would get married to the real human lovers, but it’s not the case (Peabody 135). “She shall be given to one who waits for her on yonder mountain; he overcomes gods and men” Later described as “monster” (Peabody 90). “Surely he whom the Oracle had called her husband was no monster, but some beneficent power, invisible like all the rest“(Peabody 90). Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: He was a god! Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: NO! Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: No, she was mortal Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Do you speak about the novella here? You should say so Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: He did! But she left him! This is why he hass “love troubles” Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What is the connection between the two sentences? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: ? context?
The novel presents myths as modeling societal behavior of behavior and bringing about positive religious experiences. In “A Marble Woman” novel, Cecil, already secretly in love with Yorke, chooses to stay with Yorke, and become his ideal woman, a marble woman.” (McCullough, 61). Psyche’s father sought guidance from the god of Apollo, who was the god of light, reason, and prophecy he and was advised to abandon her on a rocky crag where a serpent-like creature would marry her. Having the conclusion that beauty was a curse, Psyche was not like any other person, and so she was worshipped as a goddess of love due to her perfection. This also led her to her life partner, the evil creature, since the real human lovers felt intimidated to approach her. Cecil fell in love with Yorke as well aslike Psyche with Cupid despite Cupid and Yorke's physical and emotional aspects. Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Why “a marble woman”? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Connection? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: NO! Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: ?? Both were VERY good looking!
In most settings, myths are associated with repercussions, as presented in “A Marble Woman” story and Cupid and Psyche. The main characters always survive difficult tasks like for the case of Psyche when Venus, Cupid’s mother, told her, Cupid’s mother, that for them to wed, she had to do some difficult tasks first. She was supposed to sort a huge pile of seeds for a single night and was helped by ants. Concerning the second task, she was assisted by a river god on how to collect the fleece of the golden sheep. She traveled to Proserpina queen of the dead to convince her to drop her beauty in a box for Venus for the last task, and the unseen voice helped her. SOURCE? Cecil tried to get Yorke’s attention but was disappointed (Alcott142) until he told her that he was done with love (Alcott151). Cecil's starting point in life as a twelve-year-old child, homeless and alone, and later on her addiction to opium, depicts her life journey which was ridden with difficulties in which she puts aside her natural impulses for warmth and affection. She experiences difficulties in establishing love relationships, but her success at deadening nature in addition to Yorke’s actions actually backfire (Alcott 82).Psyche decided to perform all tasks that Venus wanted her to do so that she could get a chance to be with her loved one (Pelsue? ). She was then made immortal and free from obstacles created from humans. While Cecil decides to fight and "conquered" her loved one and abandoning her childish innocent image what requires of to actually fight against herself because for her a woman in love is capable of anything (Alcott 249). Through it the readers can observe that the bond between the couples would not be broken. Where do you learn that? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What repercussions?? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Does she? I don’t think so. She persists in her attempts to achieve love, as we learn towards the end of the novella Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: ? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What actions/ Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: How? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: ?? unclear, also due to wording and syntax Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What couples?
Most mystery love stories usually end well, and the myth of cupid and psyche is not an exception. Psyches' family knew that she was going to be killed by Cupid, but that was not the case since she did the tasks by Venus to see him again, and that came to pass when she was made immortal (Apuleius & Edward). Louisa May Alcott in her story "A Marble Woman" ensures that the context in which the myth was integrated is enlightening and informative that is applicable in real-life as for Cecil and Yorke. The Greeks promoted morality and ethical practices through the formulation of myths and misconceptions concerning multiple life aspects such as relationships. As a result, cohesion in the society was significantly enhanced, thus economic activities. Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: ?? source? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: NO Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: NO Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: How so?! Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: No – this is fiction Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: How is this relevant here?
The Usage of Psyche and Cupid in the Novel was meant to compare Cecil and Psyche. Cecil and Psyche were both courageous and faced all they had to go through with great determination and persistence till finally, they reached love. The comparison is based on character traits, behavior, purpose and even external appearance. : “Colorless, like a plant deprived of sunshine, strangely unyouthful in the quiet grace of her motions, the sweet seriousness of her expression, but as beautiful as the psyche and almost as cold” (Alcott 144). What does this quote suggest? Why is it here?
In conclusion, it is possible to observe that Louisa May Alcott implements many elements from the Myth into the novel indirectly, majorly the overcoming of obstacles to reach the ultimate love and marriage. Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What obstacles does Cecil have to overcome?
The transformation of a woman into a statue is difficult, and in the end, impossible, because female passion cannot be contained.√ Although the presented myths and misconceptions might not be currently applicable in currently, it is worth noting that they were instrumental in defining societal activities and interactions. Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Word? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: What misconceptions? Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: This undermines everything you have written so far. If the myth is not applicable to the story, why discuss it in the first place?! Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: Where?
Apuleius, Lucius, and Edward John Kenney. Cupid and Ppsyche. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
McCullough, Kate. "Louisa May Alcott's Incestuous Fathers and Fiendish Mothers, or, the Daughter As Wife." Pacific Coast Philology (1991): 59-67. Retrieved from:www.jstor.org/stable/1316556. Comment by etti gordon ginzburg: MLA
Peabody, Josephine Preston. Old Greek Folk-Sstories Told Anew. No. 114. Boston, New York, Houghton, Mifflin [c1897], 1897.
What is your main argument in this essay? The comparison between the novella and the Greek myth of Cupid (Amor) and Psyche is not systematic, and mostly clear. What are the similarities between the two stories? What are the differences? Why this allusion in the first place? And then your statement, at the end of the paper, that this comparison is not applicable here, undermines the paper’s entire rationale. Moreover, there are many factual mistakes regarding the myth, and many quotes from the story are not framed and, therefore, cannot be understood. Finally, the paper is in need of thorough editing. Please see my detailed comments above.
If you have questions, we can meet (online) to discuss them. I also suggest that we meet before you start writing your second paper.
Cupid & Psyche
Muna and Raghda
From: Old Greek Folk Stories Told Anew by Josephine P. Peabody. London: George Harrap, 1910. pp. 89-103.
The Usage of Elements of the Myth in the Novel: Love is a misery
|“Love’s bring joy or sorrow for a whole life long.” (p.89)||“love makes half the misery of the world; it has been the bane of my life—it has made me what I am, a man without ambition, hope, or happiness.” (Yorke, p.150)|
|Psyche moves from her father’s house into her husband’s house.||Cecil moves from Yorke’s first house –when he is her guardian- to a newer house when he is her husband.|
|The first house in both tales is fancy, yet the second is fancier.|
|“A fountain fluttered gladly in the midst of it, and beyond there stretched a white palace wonderful to see… It was all kinglier than her father’s home …The lordly rooms, beautiful with everything that could delight a young princess. No pleasant thing was lacking. There was even a pool, brightly tiled and fed with running waters.” (p.90)||“a long, lofty hall, softly lightened by the sunshine that crept in through screens of flowers and vines. A carpet, green and thick as forest moss, lay underfoot; warm-hued pictures leaned from the walls, and all about in graceful alcoves stood Yorke’s statues, like fit inhabitants of this artist’s home. Before three wide windows airy draperies swayed in the wind, showing glimpses of a balcony the overhung the sea, whose ever-varying loveliness was a perpetual joy” (p.197)|
|“All that you see is yours” (p.90)||“yes, this is home.” (Yorke, p.197)|
|“She shall be given to one who waits for her on yonder mountain; he overcomes gods and men.” Later described as “monster.” (p. 90)||“Mr. Yorke had a love trouble and can’t bear women, so none dare go near him.” (p.135)|
|“Surely he whom the Oracle had called her husband was no monster, but some beneficent power, invisible like all the rest. “ (p. 90)||“O Bazil, so generous, so gentle, why did I not know this sooner, and thank you as I ought?” (p.230)|
|“At that moment Psyche was asleep in her chamber; but he touched her heart with his golden arrow of love, and she opened her eyes so suddenly that he started.” (p.89)||“For many minutes Bazil Yorke watched the unconscious child, as if there was some strong attraction for him in the studious little figure.” (p.136)|
Mount Olympus vs. Yorke’s Studio
|“(Cupid) hastened up to Olympus.” (p.103)||“Cecil climbed the winding stairs.” (p.140)|
|“All the younger gods were for welcoming Psyche at once… The maiden came, a shy newcomer among these bright creatures. She took the cup that Hebe held out to her, drank the divine ambrosia, and became immortal.” (p.103)||“Cecil found so much that was inviting, she forgot fear in delight… A smiling woman seemed to beckon to her, a winged child to offer flowers, and all about the room pale gods and goddesses looked down upon her from their pedestals with what to her beauty-loving eye seemed varying expressions of welcome.” (p.140)|
Psyche Hurts Love
|“Poor Psyche was overcome with self-reproach. As she leaned towards him, filled with worship, her trembling hands held the lamp ill, and some burning oil fell upon Love’s shoulder and awakened him.” (p.92)||“The beautiful Psyche lay headless on the ground, but the girl scarcely saw it, for half underneath it lay Yorke, pale and senseless.” (p. 162) “I never thought my Psyche would cause me so much suffering, but I forgive her for her beauty’s sake.” (Yorke, p. 164)|
|Psyche/Cecil repents: “Why, here’s my Psyche mended and mounted again!” (Yorke, p. 163)|
Fearless Female Characters
Cecil and Psyche were both courageous and faced all they had to go though with great determination and persistence till finally they reached love.
Hebe: The Goddess of Youth or the Prime of Life
|“She took the cup that Hebe held out to her, drank the divine ambrosia, and became immortal.” (p.103)||“.. the wavy masses of her dark hair were gathered up with a fillet, giving her the head of a young Hebe.” (p. 144)|
Louisa May Alcott implements many elements from the Myth into the novel indirectly, majorly the overcoming of obstacles to reach the ultimate love and marriage.
The Usage of Psyche and Cupid in the Novel: Cecil and Psyche
“Colorless, like a plant deprived of sunshine, strangely unyouthful in the quiet grace of her motions, the sweet seriousness of her expression, but as beautiful as the psyche and almost as cold.”
“The little god was just drawing an arrow from his quiver with an arch smile, and the girl watched him with one almost as gay."
Who is the real Cupid?
P.145 “Don’t fire again, little Cupid, I surrender.” (Alfred)
P.148 “he turned away to examine the Cupid which Alfred had not accepted”
P.148 “What suggested the idea of this Cecil?
…Your making Psyche suggested Cupid, for though you did not
tell me the pretty fable, Alf did, and told me how my image
should be made.”
“Cecil, already secretly in love with Yorke, chooses to stay with Yorke, and become his ideal woman, a marble woman.” (McCullough, p.61)
“A marble woman like your Psyche, with no heart to love you, only grace and beauty to please your eye and bring you honor; is that what you would have me?” (Cecil)
“Yes, I would have you beautiful and passionless as Psyche, a creature to admire..” (Yorke)
“I am done with love! And lifting the little Cupid let it drop broken at her feet.” (Cecil)
The transformation of a woman into a statue is difficult, and in the end, impossible, because female passion cannot be contained. (McCullough p.62)
McCullough, K. “Louisa May Alcott's Incestuous Fathers and Fiendish Mothers, or, the Daughter As Wife.” Pacific Coast Philology, vol. 26, no. 1/2, 1991, pp. 59–67.
Old Greek Folk Stories Told Anew by Josephine P. Peabody. London: George Harrap, 1910. pp. 89-103.
Pelsue, B. (2017, Aug 3). The myth of Cupid and Psyche – Brendan Pelsue[Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Gjj_-CPxjCM
Children's Literature, Volume 17, 1989, pp. 98-123 (Article)
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Dismembering the Text: The Horror of Louisa May Alcott's Little Women Angela M. Estes and Kathleen Margaret Lant
Me from MyselfÂ—to banishÂ— Had I Art-
Impregnable my Fortress Unto All HeartÂ—
But since myselfÂ—assault MeÂ— How have I peace Except by subjugating Consciousness?
And since We're mutual Monarch How this be Except by AbdicationÂ— MeÂ—of Me?
On the floor of an attic room slumps a thirty-year-old woman, strip- ping off her disguise as a submissive seventeen-year-old govern- ess; removing her false teeth, she takes another swig from a flask and plots a scheme to undermine and conquer an entire family. In another room sits a young girl, laboriouslyÂ—albeit resentfully Â—stitching together small remnants of fabric as she learns simul- taneously the practical art of patchwork and the womanly virtues of patience, perseverance, and restraint. What possible connection could exist between these two women?
These two scenesÂ—the first from Louisa May Alcott's thriller "Behind a Mask" and the second from her children's story "Patty's Patchwork"Â—exemplify the apparent extremes that characterize the heroines and plots of Alcott's works. Traditionally, Alcott has been considered a writer of inoffensive, sometimes mildly rebel- lious children's fiction, but the discovery and republication in 1975 and 1976 ' of Alcott's anonymous and pseudonymous adult thrillers (first published between 1863 and 1869) and the emergence of more
Children's Literature 17, ed. Francelia Butler, Margaret Higonnet, and Barbara Rosen (Yale University Press, Â© 1989 by The Children's Literature Foundation, Inc.).
The Horror of Louisa May Akott's Little Women 99
thoughtful recent critical approaches to her children's stories have raised significant questions for Alcott scholars: How is the Alcott canon to be reenvisioned to explain the existence of her hidden fictional efforts? How do we account for Alcott's fascination with the lurid, the wild, the unacceptable and untrammeled heroines of the thrillers when we remember the little girlsÂ—at least superficially docileÂ—of the children's short stories and the ultimately tamed Jo of Little Women} And, most importantly, how do these thrillers, char- acterized by violence, deceit, infidelity, and licentiousness of every kind imaginable, reshape or enrich our understanding of Alcott's classic children's novel Little Women (1868)?2
The seemingly contradictory aspects of Alcott's fiction can be better understood when we place her in a personal and historical con- text. She was intimately involved in the transcendental circle of her father and his friends, the literati of Concord, including, of course, its leader Ralph Waldo Emerson. Alcott embraced the transcenden- tal ideals of self-expression, self-reliance, and self-exploration as espoused by both Emerson and her father, Bronson Alcott. In a journal entry (27 April 1882), Alcott affirms Emerson's pervasive influence on her life and thought: "Mr. Emerson died at 9 p.m. suddenly. Our best and greatest American gone. The nearest and dearest friend Father has ever had, and the man who has helped me most by his life, his books, his society. I can never tell all he has been to me … his essays on Self-reliance, Character, Compensa- tion, Love, and Friendship helped me to understand myself and life, and God and Nature" (Cheney 345). Alcott insisted, moreover, that the self-reliance and self-awareness so vaunted by the tran- scendentalists be extended to women as well as men. In a letter to Maria S. Porter, she asserts woman's right to an identity and a life of her own by calling for an exploration and redefinition of "woman's sphere": "In future let woman do whatever she can do; let men place no more impediments in the way; above all things let's have fair play,Â—let simple justice be done, say I. Let us hear no more of 'woman's sphere' either from our wise (?) legislators beneath the gilded dome, or from our clergymen in their pulpits." Alcott goes on to insist that woman be allowed to "find out her own limitations" (Porter 13-14).
100 Angela M. Estes and Kathleen M. Lant
But Alcott, well educated in the proprieties of her own time, realized the dangers for a woman of nineteenth-century America in advocating such potentially liberating attitudes too openly. In fact, Alcott seemed to sense the ambiguities inherent, at least for women, in Emerson's position, for it is Emerson, the man from whom she learned the value of self-reliance, whose censure she fears when creating (in the adult thrillers) her most self-reliant and self-assertive female characters:
I think my natural ambition is for the lurid style. I indulge in gorgeous fancies and wish that I dared inscribe them upon my pages and set them before the public…. How should I dare to interfere with the proper grayness of old Concord? The dear old town has never known a startling hue since the redcoats were there. Far be it from me to inject an inharmonious color into the neutral tint. And my favorite characters! Suppose they went to cavorting at their own sweet will, to the infinite horror of dear Mr. Emerson, who never imagined a Concord person as walking off a plumb line stretched between two pearly clouds in the empyrean. [Pickett 107-08]
Alcott was, moreover, reticent about openly advocating self-reliance and assertiveness in her works for children; she was aware of the responsibility she bore her young readers in that they so fully iden- tified with and followed the careers of such characters as Jo. In fact, after the publication of Little Women, Alcott seemed quite moved by her young readers' responses to her works: "Over a hundred letters from boys & girls … & many from teachers & parents assure me that my little books are read & valued in a way I never dreamed of seeing them" (quoted by Stern in her introduction to Myerson and Shealy, xxxiii). And in a letter of 1872 to William Henry Venable, Alcott expresses gratitude that her stories are "considered worthy to be used for the instruction as well as the amusement of young people" (Myerson and Shealy 172).3
In the final analysis, however, it seems clear that Alcott was not unambivalently committed to the creation of "innocent" entertain- ments (Myerson and Shealy 172) for the young. In fact, her im- patience with such works becomes obvious in her more candid mo- ments: she claims in a letter probably written in 1878 that she wrote what she refers to as "moral tales for the young" because she felt pressure from her publishers and because such tales provided her
The Horror of Louisa May Alcott's Little Women 101
with a much needed income. "I do it," she admits, "because it pays well" (Myerson and Shealy 232).
Louisa Alcott found herself, then, confronted with conflicting impulses: on the one hand, AlcottÂ—educated under the tutelage of Emerson and Bronson AlcottÂ—craves freedom and the power of self-assertion for both herself and her characters; on the other hand, she feels strongly the pressure to meet the needs of her young readers and the demands of her publishers. In Alcott's most famous novel for children, therefore, woman's development toward mem- bership in the acceptable female sphere is rendered in a surface narrative; to reveal the complex, dangerous truths of female experi- ence, the self-assertive drives toward womanly independence, Alcott (resorting to one of the ploys she uses frequently in the thrillersÂ— disguise) must incorporate a subtext. Thus, in Little Women, Alcott, employing both a surface narrative and a subtext to disclose an extended vision of feminine conflict
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