Locate at least two architectural works that were influenced by Greco-Roman architecture. These can be from any time period after the Greco-Roman period but should be from different periods themselves (e.g., one from Renaissance and one from Baroque). Then address the following:
Use examples from the text, the lesson, and the library to help support your answer. Please remember to provide images and citations to help illustrate your points.
Follow-Up Post Instructions
Respond to at least one peer. Further the dialogue by providing more information and clarification.
YesterdayMay 16 at 4:59pmManage Discussion Entry
This week we are reading about architecture. This is vastly different from other forms of art that we have learned about thus far. Our book describes how architects have a special and respected relationship in respects to space and function of that space. Some of the most unique and well known buildings have been created with this foundation in architecture in mind. As stated in our book, “Architecture generally creates a strengthened hierarchy in the positioned interrelationships of earth and sky and what is in between” (Jacobus & Martin, 2018). The influences of Greco-Roman architecture are seen throughout the creation of buildings all over the world. These structures are renowned for their magnificence, huge columns, and iconic beauty. This style is also known for its symmetry, archways, vaults, and domes. These structures are constructed using marble, limestone, and concrete.
St. Peter’s Square was built from 1656-1667 in the Vatican City, during the Renaissance time period. Designed by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, it functions as a gathering place for the public upwards of 300,000 to see the Pope give his blessings. It is named after Saint Peter, an apostle of Jesus and exhibits symmetry throughout its construction. This structure exhibits the Greco-Roman period by its design. For example, there is a trapezoidal entrance as one enters the elliptical viewing area. Looking straight into the open area, one can see straight to the Papal Basilica of Saint Peter, known to be the headquarters of the Catholic church. There is an Egyptian obelisk (a tall, four-sided narrow tapering monument that ends in a pyramid-like shape on top) located in the center of the viewing area. Matching curved colonnades (long sequences of columns) flank each side of the obelisk with 284 columns, 88 pilasters, and 140 statues of saints (Civitatis Tours SL., n.d.). In addition, there are two fountains on each side of the obelisk contribute to St. Peter’s square beauty and relaxing atmosphere after being constructed from 1667 to 1677 (Città Del Vaticano, n.d.). The construction of St. Peter’s square embodies both Greek and Roman Architecture during the Renaissance era.
The Low Memorial Library located on the Columbia University campus in New York City is another example influenced by Greco-Roman architecture. This structure was the first major building of Columbia University’s new campus built in 1895 – 1897 in the Late Modern Period. It is located in New York City’s Morningside Heights neighborhood. “Modeled after the Pantheon in Rome, Low (Memorial) Library was conceived as the visual and academic focal point of the campus plan” (National Park Service, n.d.). There are several flights of steps with two landings that lead to the entrance of the building. Its entrance faces the campus courtyard with several columns and a rising, central dome. There are balconies along the base of the dome, with the north balcony featuring four statues of Euripides, Demosthenes, Sophocles and Augustus Caesar. The two massive columns of green marble at the entrance lead to the octagonal reading room. This interior space is surrounded by sixteen columns of green granite from Vermont (University Archives, 2020). This structure embodies both Greek and Roman architecture.
Low Memorial Library:
Pantheon in Rome Italy:
Taking the role of the evaluative critic and the three parts to being that, the insight to St. Peter’s Square is that this structure is a vast outdoor space where individuals can witness the pope give his blessing. This background knowledge allows for understanding of the intent behind this structure. In my opinion, this structure is a work of perfection as the beautiful symmetry of the oval shape with its colonnades comes together to form an open area for people to gather. This structure is the ideal definition of inexhaustibility as it has infinite beauty and meaning behind each form and shape. St. Peter’s Square can be intimidating, beautiful, mysterious among so many other personal interpretations. The Low Memorial Library has great insight behind it’s design. Modeled after the Pantheon in Rome, this structure was built to be a library and has since become partly occupied with administrative offices. The massive columns in the front of the library give an onlooker the impression as if they are about to enter a great building, with thousands of books on display. This structure embodies perfection and inexhaustibility shows in what appears to be an endless flight of stairs approaching the library doors.
Città Del Vaticano. (n.d.). St. Peter’s Square Fountains. Retrieved May 16, 2021, from https://vatican.com/St-Peters-Square-Fountains/
Civitatis Tours SL. (n.d.). St. Peter’s Square – Vatican City. Civitatis Rome. Retrieved May 16, 2021, from https://www.rome.net/st-peters-square#:%7E:text=The%20most%20impressive%20part%20of,by%20the%20disciples%20of%20Bernini.
Jacobus, L., & Martin, D. F. (2018). Humanities through the Arts (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.
National Park Service. (n.d.). Low Memorial Library, Columbia University, New York. National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved May 16, 2021, from https://www.nps.gov/places/low-memorial-library.htm
University Archives. (2020, April 20). Low and Gould Memorial Libraries: Contemporaries and Counterparts – News from Columbia’s Rare Book & Manuscript Library. News from Columbia’s Rare Book & Manuscript Library. https://blogs.cul.columbia.edu/rbml/2020/04/20/low-and-gould-memorial-libraries/
THE HUMANITIES THROUGH THE ARTS
T e n t h E d i t i o n
Lee A. Jacobus Professor of English Emeritus
University of Connecticut
F. David Martin Professor of Philosophy Emeritus
©Universal History Archive/Getty Images
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THE HUMANITIES THROUGH THE ARTS, TENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121. Copyright © 2019 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Previous editions © 2015, 2011, and 2008. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.
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This book is printed on acid-free paper.
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Bound: ISBN 978-1-259-91687-8 MHID 1-259-91687-1
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All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be an extension of the copyright page.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Martin, F. David, 1920- author. | Jacobus, Lee A., author. The humanities through the arts/F. David Martin, Professor of Philosophy Emeritus, Bucknell University; Lee A. Jacobus, Professor of English Emeritus, University of Connecticut. Tenth edition. | New York : McGraw-Hill Education, 2018. | Includes index. LCCN 2017051530 | ISBN 9781259916878 (alk. paper) LCSH: Arts–Psychological aspects. | Art appreciation. LCC NX165 .M37 2018 | DDC 701/.18–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2017051530
The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.
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ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Lee A. Jacobus (PhD, Claremont Graduate University) taught at Western Con- necticut State University and then at the University of Connecticut (Storrs) until he retired in 2001. He held a Danforth Teachers Grant while earning his doctor- ate. His publications include Shakespeare and the Dialectic of Certainty (St. Martin’s Press, 1992); Sudden Apprehension: Aspects of Knowledge in Paradise Lost (Mouton, 1976); John Cleveland: A Critical Study (G. K. Hall, 1975); Aesthetics and the Arts (McGraw-Hill, 1968); The Bedford Introduction to Drama (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2018); and A World of Ideas (Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2017).
F. David Martin (PhD, University of Chicago) taught at the University of Chicago and then at Bucknell University until his retirement in 1983. He was a Fulbright Research Scholar in Florence and Rome from 1957 through 1959 and received seven other major research grants during his career, as well as the Christian Lind- back Award for Distinguished Teaching. Dr. Martin’s publications include Art and the Religious Experience (Associated University Presses, 1972); Sculpture and the En- livened Space (The University Press of Kentucky, 1981); and Facing Death: Theme and Variations (Associated University Presses, 2006). Professor Martin died in 2014.
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We dedicate this study to teachers and students of the humanities.
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Part 1 FUNDAMENTALS
1 The Humanities: An Introduction 1 2 What Is a Work of Art? 17
3 Being a Critic of the Arts 42
Part 2 THE ARTS
4 Painting 58 5 Sculpture 91
6 Architecture 121 7 Literature 163 8 Theater 196 9 Music 224
10 Dance 254 11 Photography 276
12 Cinema 299 13 Television and Video Art 330
Part 3 INTERRELATIONSHIPS
14 Is It Art or Something Like It? 352 15 The Interrelationships of the Arts 378
16 The Interrelationships of the Humanities 397
Source: The Michael C. Rockefeller Memorial Collection, Bequest of Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1979/The Metropolitan Museum of Art
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Subject Matter and Content 34
EXPERIENCING: Interpretations of the Female Nude 40
Further Thoughts on Artistic Form 41 Summary 41
3 Being a Critic of the Arts 42 You Are Already an Art Critic 42 Participation and Criticism 43 Three Kinds of Criticism 43 Descriptive Criticism 44 Interpretive Criticism 48 Evaluative Criticism 52
EXPERIENCING: The Polish Rider 55 Summary 56
Part 2 THE ARTS
4 Painting 58 Our Visual Powers 58 The Media of Painting 59 Tempera 59 Fresco 61 Oil 62 Watercolor 64 Acrylic 64 Other Media and Mixed Media 65
Elements of Painting 68
Part 1 FUNDAMENTALS
1 The Humanities: An Introduction 1
The Humanities: A Study of Values 1 Art, Commerce, and Taste 4 Responses to Art 5
EXPERIENCING: The Mona Lisa 9
Structure and Artistic Form 10 Perception 11
Abstract Ideas and Concrete Images 12 Summary 16
2 What Is a Work of Art? 17 Identifying Art Conceptually 18 Identifying Art Perceptually 18 Artistic Form 19 Participation 23 Participation and Artistic Form 25 Content 26 Subject Matter 28 Subject Matter and Artistic Form 28 Participation, Artistic Form, and Content 29 Artistic Form: Examples 30
Photo: Kira Perov. Courtesy Bill Viola Studio
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6 Architecture 121 Centered Space 121 Space and Architecture 122 Chartres 123 Living Space 125 Four Necessities of Architecture 126 Technical Requirements of Architecture 126 Functional Requirements of Architecture 127 Spatial Requirements of Architecture 131 Revelatory Requirements of Architecture 131
Earth-Rooted Architecture 132 Site 132 Gravity 133 Raw Materials 134 Centrality 136
Sky-Oriented Architecture 138 Axis Mundi 141 Defiance of Gravity 142 Integration of Light 143
Earth-Resting Architecture 144 Earth-Dominating Architecture 145 Combinations of Types 146 Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and The Taj Mahal 147
EXPERIENCING: The Taj Mahal 149
High-Rises and Skyscrapers 150
FOCUS ON: The Alhambra 155
Urban Planning 157 Summary 161
7 Literature 163 Spoken Language and Literature 163 Literary Structures 167 The Narrative and the Narrator 167 The Episodic Narrative 169 The Organic Narrative 171 The Quest Narrative 176 The Lyric 177
EXPERIENCING: “La Belle Dame Sans Merci” 182
Line 68 Color 72 Texture 73 Composition 73
The Clarity of Painting 75 The “All-at-Onceness” of Painting 77 Abstract Painting 78 Intensity and Restfulness in Abstract Painting 80 Representational Painting 81 Comparison of Five Impressionist Paintings 81
FOCUS ON: The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood 86
Frames 88 EXPERIENCING: Frames 89
5 Sculpture 91 Sensory Interconnections 92 Sculpture and Painting Compared 92 Sculpture and Space 94 Sunken-Relief Sculpture 94 Low-Relief Sculpture 95 High-Relief Sculpture 96 Sculpture in the Round 97 Sculpture and Architecture Compared 98 Sensory Space 99 Sculpture and the Human Body 99 Sculpture in the Round and the
Human Body 101 EXPERIENCING: Sculpture and Physical Size 103
Contemporary Sculpture 104 Truth to Materials 104 Protest against Technology 108 Accommodation with Technology 110 Machine Sculpture 112 Earth Sculpture 113
FOCUS ON: African Sculpture 114
Sculpture in Public Places 117 Summary 120
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Literary Details 183 Image 184 Metaphor 185 Symbol 187 Irony 189 Diction 190
FOCUS ON: Po Chü’i, Poet of the T’ang Dynasty 191 Summary 194
8 Theater 196 Aristotle and the Elements of Drama 197 Dialogue and Soliloquy 198
Archetypal Patterns 200 Genres of Drama: Tragedy 201 The Tragic Stage 202 Stage Scenery and Costumes 202 Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet 206
Comedy: Old and New 209 Tragicomedy: The Mixed Genre 211 A Play for Study: Riders to the Sea 211
EXPERIENCING: Riders to the Sea 218
FOCUS ON: Musical Theater: Hamilton 218
Experimental Drama 221 Summary 222
9 Music 224 Hearing and Listening 224 The Elements of Music 225 Tone 225 Consonance 226 Dissonance 226 Rhythm 227 Tempo 227 Melodic Material: Melody, Theme, and Motive 227 Counterpoint 228 Harmony 228 Dynamics 229 Contrast 229
The Subject Matter of Music 229 Feelings 230
EXPERIENCING: Chopin’s Prelude 7 in A Major 231
Two Theories: Formalism and Expressionism 233 Sound 233 Tonal Center 234 Musical Structures 236 Theme and Variations 236 Rondo 236 Fugue 237 Sonata Form 237 Symphony 238
FOCUS ON: Beethoven’s Symphony in E♭ Major, No. 3, Eroica 243
Blues and Jazz: Popular American Music 248 Rock and Roll and Rap 251 Summary 253
10 Dance 254 Subject Matter of Dance 254
EXPERIENCING: Feeling and Dance 256
Form 257 Dance and Ritual 258 Ritual Dance 258 Social Dance 259 The Court Dance 259
Ballet 260 Swan Lake 262
Modern Dance 265 Alvin Ailey’s Revelations 267 Martha Graham 269 Batsheva Dance Company 270 Pilobolus and Momix Dance Companies 271 Mark Morris Dance Group 272
FOCUS ON: Theater Dance 272
Popular Dance 274 Summary 275
11 Photography 276 Photography and Painting 276
EXPERIENCING: Photography and Art 280
Photography and Painting: The Pictorialists 281
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Straight Photography 283 The f/64 Group 284
The Documentarists 286 The Modern Eye 292
FOCUS ON: Digital Photography 296 Summary 298
12 Cinema 299 The Subject Matter of Film 299 Directing and Editing 300 The Participative Experience and Film 303 The Film Image 305
EXPERIENCING: Still Frames and Photography 305
Camera Point of View 308 Violence and Film 310 Sound 312 Image and Action 313 Cinematic Structure 315 Cinematic Details 317 The Context of Film History 318 Two Great Films: The Godfather and
Casablanca 319 The Narrative Structure of The Godfather Films 320 Coppola’s Images 321 Coppola’s Use of Sound 321 The Power of The Godfather 322
FOCUS ON: Michael Curtiz’s Casablanca 323
Experimentation 326 Animated Film 327 Summary 329
13 Television and Video Art 330 The Evolution of Television 330 The Subject Matter of Television and
Video Art 331 Commercial Television 332 The Television Series 333 The Structure of the Self-Contained Episode 334
The Television Serial 335 Three Emmy Winners 339
FOCUS ON: The Americans 342
Video Art 344 EXPERIENCING: Jacopo Pontormo and Bill Viola: The
Visitation 348 Summary 351
Part 3 INTERRELATIONSHIPS
14 Is It Art or Something Like It? 352
Art and Artlike 352 Illustration 354 Realism 354 Folk Art 355 Popular Art 357 Propaganda 362
EXPERIENCING: Propaganda Art 362
FOCUS ON: Kitsch 363
Decoration 365 Idea Art 370 Dada 370 Duchamp and His Legacy 371 Conceptual Art 372
Performance Art 374 Virtual Art 376 Summary 377
15 The Interrelationships of the Arts 378
Appropriation 378 Interpretation 379 Film Interprets Literature: Howards End 380 Music Interprets Drama: The Marriage of Figaro 382 Painting Interprets Poetry: The Starry Night 385 Sculpture Interprets Poetry: Apollo and Daphne 387
EXPERIENCING: Bernini’s Apollo and Daphne and Ovid’s The Metamorphoses 389
Drama Interprets Painting 390
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EXPERIENCING: The Humanities and Students of Medicine 399
Values 400 FOCUS ON: The Arts and History, the Arts and Philosophy,
the Arts and Theology 402 Summary 406
FOCUS ON: Photography Interprets Fiction 391
Architecture Interprets Dance: National Nederlanden Building 392 Painting Interprets Dance and Music: The Dance and Music 392
EXPERIENCING: Death in Venice: Three Versions 395 Summary 396
16 The Interrelationships of the Humanities 397
The Humanities and the Sciences 397 The Arts and the Other Humanities 398
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The Humanities through the Arts, tenth edition, explores the humanities with an em- phasis on the arts. Examining the relationship of the humanities to values, objects, and events important to people is central to this book. We make a distinction between artists and other humanists: Artists reveal values, while other humanists examine or reflect on values. We study how values are revealed in the arts while keeping in mind a basic question: “What is art?” Judging by the existence of ancient artifacts, we see that artistic expression is one of the most fundamental human activities. It binds us together as a people by revealing the most important values of our culture.
Our genre-based approach offers students the opportunity to understand the relationship of the arts to human values by examining, in-depth, each of the major artistic media. Subject matter, form, and content in each of the arts supply the framework for careful analysis. Painting and photography focus our eyes on the visual appearance of things. Sculpture reveals the textures, densities, and shapes of things. Architecture sharpens our perception of spatial relationships, both in- side and out. Literature, theater, cinema, and video explore values and make us more aware of the human condition. Our understanding of feelings is deepened by music. Our sensitivity to movement, especially of the human body, is enhanced by dance. The wide range of opportunities for criticism and analysis helps the reader synthesize the complexities of the arts and their interaction with values of many kinds. All of this is achieved with an exceptionally vivid and complete illustration program alongside detailed discussion and interactive responses to the problems inherent in a close study of the arts and values of our time.
This edition, as with previous editions, is organized into three parts, offering con- siderable flexibility in the classroom:
Part 1, “Fundamentals,” includes the first three introductory chapters. In Chapter 1, The Humanities: An Introduction, we distinguish the humanities from the sciences, and the arts from other humanities. In Chapter 2, What Is a Work of Art?, we raise the question of definition in art and the ways in which we distinguish art from other objects and experiences. Chapter 3, Being a Critic of the Arts, introduces the vital role of criticism in art appreciation and evaluation.
©ArenaPal/Topham/The Image Works
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Part 2, “The Arts,” includes individual chapters on each of the basic arts. The structure of this section permits complete flexibility: The chapters may be used in their present order or in any order one wishes. We begin with the individual chapters Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture; follow with Literature, Theater, Music, and Dance; and continue with Photography, Cinema, and Television and Video Art. Instructors may reorder or omit chapters as needed. The chapter Pho- tography logically precedes the chapters Cinema and Television and Video Art for the convenience of instructors who prefer to teach the chapters in the order presented.
Part 3, “Interrelationships,” begins with Chapter 14, Is It Art or Something Like It? We study illustration, folk art, propaganda, and kitsch while raising the question “What is art?” We also examine the avant-garde as it pushes us to the edge of defi- nition. Chapter 15, The Interrelationships of the Arts, explores the ways in which the arts work together, as in how a film interprets E. M. Forster’s novel Howards End, how literature and a musical interpretation of a Beaumarchais play result in Mo- zart’s opera The Marriage of Figaro, how Walt Whitman’s poetry inspires van Gogh’s painting The Starry Night, how a passage from Ovid’s epic poem “The Metamorpho- ses” inspires the Bernini sculpture Apollo and Daphne, and more. Chapter 16, The Interrelationships of the Humanities, addresses the ways in which the arts reveal val- ues shared by the other humanities—particularly history, philosophy, and theology.
Key Changes in the tenth editiOn
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Updated illustration program and contextual discussions. More than 30 percent of the images in this edition are new or have been updated to include fresh classic and contemporary works. New discussions of these works appear near the illustrations. The 200-plus images throughout the book have been carefully chosen and reproduced in full color when possible, resulting in a beautifully illustrated text. Newly added visual artists represented include painters Arte- misia Gentileschi, Diego Velasquez, Frederic Lord Leighton, Amedeo Modigliani, Winslow Homer, Morris Louis, Hokusai, Willem de Kooning, Jean-Honore Frag- onard, Arshile Gorky, Henry Wallis, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Arthur Hughes, William Holman Hunt, and John Waterhouse; sculptors Edgar Degas, Kara Walker, Magdalena Abakanowicz, and Naum Gabo; photographers Berenice Abbott, Nan Goldin, Paul Strand, Bruce Davidson, Carrie Mae Weems, Tina Barney, Wang Quinsong, and Bill Gekas; and video artists Pipilotti Riist and Bill Viola. Newly added film and television stills represent Michael Curtiz’s classic film Casablanca, the popular television shows Game of Thrones and The Americans, Orson Wells’s The Lady from Shanghai, Jonathan Demme’s The Silence of the Lambs, Steven Spielberg’s Saving Private Ryan, Alejandro Inarritu’s The Revenant, and more.
Along with the many new illustrations and contextual discussions of the visual arts, film, and television, new works and images in the literary, dance, theatrical, and musical arts have been added and contextualized. These include works by Robert Herrick, John Masefield, Amy Lowell, Alfred Lord Tennyson, John Donne, Wang Chang-Ling, Po Chu’i, John Millington Synge, Lin-Manuel Miranda, Frederic Chopin, Tupac Shakur, and the Batsheva Dance Company.
Increased focus on non-Western art and art by minority and female artists. This edition contains numerous new examples, including paintings (Artemesia Gentileschi’s Self-portrait as the Allegory of Painting and Hokusai’s The Wave), sculpture (Kara Walker’s A Subtlety, or The Marvelous Sugar Baby and Magdalena Abakanowicz’s Bronze Crowd), architecture (the Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut, Egypt), literature (Amy Lowell’s “Venus Transiens” and Po Chu’i’s T’ang dynasty poetry), theater (Lin-Manual Miranda’s Hamilton), dance (the Batsheva Dance Company), photography (Berenice Abbott, Nan Goldin, Carrie Mae Weems, Tina Barney, and Wang Quinsong), film (The Revenant), and television and video art (Pipilotti Riist).
Four major pedagogical boxed features enhance student understanding of the genres and of individual works within the genres: Perception Key, Conception Key, Experiencing, and Focus On.
• The Perception Key boxes are designed to sharpen readers’ responses to the arts. These boxes raise important questions about specific works of art in a way that respects the complexities of the works and of our responses to them. The questions raised are usually open-ended and thereby avoid any doctrinaire views or dogmatic opinions. The emphasis is on perception and
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awareness, and how a heightened awareness will produce a fuller and more meaningful understanding of the work at hand. In a few cases our own in- terpretations and analyses follow the keys and are offered not as the way to perceive a given work of art but, rather, as one possible way. Our primary interest is in exciting our readers to perceive the splendid singularity of the work of art in question.
PERCEPTION KEY Chartres Cathedral 1. Form and function usually work together in classic architecture. What visible ex-
terior architectural details indicate that Chartres Cathedral functions as a church? Are there any visible details that conflict with its function as a church?
2. The two spires of the church were built at different times. Should they have been made symmetrical? What might be some reasons for their not being symmetrical?
3. What seem to be the primary values revealed by the rose window of Chartres? 4. How did the builders satisfy the fourth requirement of architecture: that the build-
ing be revelatory? What values does the exterior of the building reveal? 5. What is implied by the fact that the cathedral dwarfs all the buildings near it?
• We use Conception Key boxes, rather than Perception Key boxes, in certain instances throughout the book where we focus on thought and conception rather than observation and perception. Again, these are open-ended questions that involve reflection and understanding. There is no single way of responding to these keys, just as there is no simple way to answer the questions.
CONCEPTION KEY Theories Our theory of art as revelatory, as giving insight into values, may appear to be mired in a tradition that cannot account for the amazing developments of the avant-garde. Is the theory inadequate? As you proceed with this chapter, ask your- self whether the distinction between art and artlike is valid. How about useful? If not, what theory would you propose? Or would you be inclined to dismiss theories altogether?
• Each chapter provides an Experiencing box that gives the reader the opportunity to approach a specific work of art in more detail than the Perception Key boxes. Analysis of the work begins by answering a few preliminary questions to make it accessible to students. Follow-up questions ask students to think critically about the work and guide them to their own interpretations. In every case we raise major issues concerning the genre of the work, the background of the work, and the artistic issues that make the work demanding and important.
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• In each chapter of “The Arts” and “Interrelationships” sections of the book, we include a Focus On box, which provides an opportunity to deal in-depth with a group of artworks in context, the work of a single artist, or a single work of art. Many of the Focus On boxes are new to this edition, including those discuss- ing the pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, the Alhambra, Chinese poet Po Chu’i, the popular musical play Hamilton, the classic film Casablanca, and the critically ac- claimed television series The Americans. Each of these opportunities encourages in-depth and comparative study.
FOCUS ON The Alhambra The Alhambra (Figure 6-33) is one of the world’s most dazzling works of architecture. Its beginnings in the Middle Ages were modest, a fortress on a hilly flatland above Granada built by Arab invaders— Moors—who controlled much of Spain. In time, the fortress was added to, and by the fourteenth century the Nasrid dynasty demanded a sumptuous palace and King Yusuf I (1333–1352) began con- struction. After his death it was continued by his son Muhammad V (1353–1391).
While the needs of a fortress were still evident, in- cluding the plain massive exterior walls, the Nasrids wanted the interior to be luxurious, magnificent, and beautiful. The Alhambra is one of the world’s most astounding examples of beautifully decorated architecture. The builders created a structure that was different from any that had been built in Islam. But at the same time, they depended on many historical traditions for interior decoration, such as the Seljuk, Mughal, and Fatimid styles. Because Islam for- bade the reproduction in art of the human form, we see representations of flowers, plants, vines, and other natural objects in the midst of elaborate designs, including Arabic script.
The aerial view (Figure 6-34) reveals the siting of the Alhambra rising above trees surrounding it. The large square structure was added much later by Charles V, after the Nasrid dynasty collapsed and the Moors were driven from Spain.
FIGURE 6-33 The Alhambra, Granada, Spain. Circa 1370–1380. “Alhambra” may be translated as red, possibly a reference to the color of the bricks of its outer walls. It sits on high ground above the town.
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