BUT NO OUTSIDE SOURCE AT ALL EXCEPT ATTACHED FILES
Who or what did the American government consider the biggest threat against its freedom and way of life in the 1950s? Was this a justified fear? What policies were put in place and what theories arose to deter the expansion of Communist ideology abroad and at home? Identity and decribe some American backed international bodies that were established after World War II? Why were these important? Did the Soviet Union have an equivalent, if so what was it? What happened to Germany after WWII? What happened to American institutions after WWII? Identity those institutions. Why did this "institutional militarization" occur? Why did Harry Truman eventually denounce the CIA? What was the root of contention between President Kennedy and the Joint Chiefs? Why did they grow to mistrust each other? Was Castro's life in danger by American entities? If so, why? What operations did the Pentagon, CIA, and Joint Chiefs come up with in order to take out Castro and develop a pretext to attack Cuba? Who were the central players of the Cuban Missile Crisis? Why did Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev place missiles in Cuba? Why did Castro purchase nuclear missiles from the Soviet Union. Why was this a tremendous gamble? Is there evidence that JFK was changed as a result of the crisis? If so, what is it? What revelations about political leadership does the Cuban Missile Crisis offer?
· Film Clip: Blowback: CIA and Iran, 1953
· Film Clip: Castle Bravo
· Film Clip: World's Largest Nuclear Explosion, the Tsar Bomba!
· Film Clip: Bay of Pigs Invasion
· Film Clip: Clouds over Cuba
· Film Clip: "You're in a pretty bad fix…"
· Audio Clip: The Kennedy Tapes, Cuban Missile Crisis Deliberations
· Film Clip: Bobby Kennedy and Dobrynin Negotiation ( to end Cuban Missile Crisis)
At age 43, John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JFK) was the youngest person ever to be elected president. Kennedy and his cabinet, called "the best and the brightest" (because of the number of officials that graduated from the Ivy League) would deal with numerous Cold War threats and narrowly avoided WW III with the Soviet Union.
Kennedy entered office a cold war warrior, however, as result of his many near confrontations with the Russian, his view toward the Soviet Union seemed to change and he actually began to espouse nuclear disarmament.
Kennedy Administration : Best and the Brightest
· Foreign relations counselor McGeorge Bundy, former Harvard Dean
· Dean Rusk, Secretary of State, Rhodes Scholar
· Kenny O’Donnel, attended Harvard and Boston Law School
· Robert F. Kennedy, Attorney General, attended Harvard
· Robert S. McNamara, former CEO of Ford Motor Company
Kennedy firmly belied in the mission to reach the moon, and supported doubling spending on N.A.S.A.
· Doubled budget for N.A.S.A. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)
· As a Democrat, Kennedy had a robust domestic agenda that was overshadowed by foreign conflicts:
· extend unemployment benefits
· raise minimum wage
· broaden social security
· increase defense spending
· Federal housing funding increase ($4 billion)
The youngest president used paramilitary groups and Special Forces, i.e. more than any of his predecessors. Like Eisenhower, Kennedy wanted to contain communism.
· Contain Communism
· Paramilitary groups
· Peace Corp in 1961
Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara was asked by Kennedy to investigate the supposed missile gap between the US and the USSR. 3 weeks later, McNamara reported back that there was no missile gap and 3 months later, he told Kennedy that the US had nuclear superiority over the Soviets:
US: 25,000 nuclear weapons
USSR: 2,500 nuclear weapons
US: 45 ICBMS
USSR: 4 ICBMS
US: 1,500 bombers
USSR: 192 bombers
THE US and CUBA
Events in Cuba would embroil Kennedy as soon as he took office in 1961.
As you may recall, the US intervened in Cuba in 1898. By the 1930s and up until the 1950s, most of Cuba's resources were controlled by American corporations:
· Good Neighbor Policy & Cuba (American holdings)
· 80-100% Cuban utilities, mines, cattle ranches, and oil refineries
· 40% of sugar industries
· 50% of public railways
By the 1950s most of Cuba's peasant population was in terrible poverty. The US government tolerated the very corrupt Cuban leader Fulgencio Batista who allowed the American Mafia to operate (almost with impunity) in Havanna which brought wealth to their casinos and to Batista's regime. Meanwhile Cuban children attended schools with dirt floors and roofs that were made of palm tree leaves.
While studying law at the University of Havana, Fidel Castro became an ardent anti-imperialist and protested Cuba's corrupt government, as result he was imprisoned.
Castro overthrows Fulgencio Batista on January 1st, 1959
After being released from prison, he adopted guerilla warfare tactics and overthrew Batista on Jan 1, 1959; Batista and the Mafia were both forced to flee Cuba.
There was brief moment where Cuba could have become part of America's orbit, but Castro's affinity for socialism and affiliation with leftists such as Che Guaverra was too much for the ultra conservative Eisenhower Administration.
Castro visited US for first time in 1959
When Castro visited the US in April of 1959 Eisenhower refused to meet with the young Cuban leader. After Vice President Richard Nixon meet with Castro, he said the revolutionary was “naïve about communism” and supported his elimination. A plot to overthrow Castro was soon approved.
After the Castro Revolution of 1959
· IMF hesitant to lend money to Cuba's revolutionary government
· Cuba turns to USSR and begins to import goods
· American oil companies refuse to refine Russian crude oil (order given by State Dept)
· Castro seizes all American companies (Texaco, Chase, UFC, etc.)
· US refuses to buy Cuban sugar in protest
· Soviet Union buys all 700,000 tons of Cuba's sugar
· Castro breaks up large cattle ranches and sugar plantations
· US threatens to cut off aid, Castro confiscates $1 billion in US property
· Signs trade agreement w/ Soviet Union in 1960
· Eisenhower severs diplomatic relations w/ Cuba
· Authorizes CIA to train Cuban expatriates for future invasion
There were at least 19 US backed attempt to kill Fidel Castro, he escaped every one of them.
The US unsuccessfully collaborated withe Mafia figures in developing assassination plots against Castro:
Santos Trafficante Sam Giancana John Roselli
Covert Operations designed to take down Castro:
· Operation Mongoose
· CIA plan to wreck Cuban economy
· Continue assassination attempts
Chairman of the Joint Chiefs-of-Staff, Lyman L. Lemnitzerpresented Kennedy with some false flag operations (in order to establish a pretext to attack Cuba) in a document called Operation Northwoods. Among other things Lemnitzer proposed that the US could do the following:
· Stage a Cuban government high-jacking
· Shoot down a civilian airline and blame it on the Cubans
· Sink boat loads of Cubans escaping into Florida and blaming communists
· Stage terrorist attacks around Miami and blame it on Castro
(remember the "people are expendable in order to achieve political objectives" concept from WW II? Well it's back again.)
Disturbed over the obvious implications for such a plan, Kennedy fired Lemnitzer
· A mock invasion of an island and overthrow of its government
What is the word ORSTAC spelled backwards? ………………….clever right?
American troops conduct mock invasion of a Caribbean island, 1962
· 79 ships
· 300 aircraft
· 40,000 troops
Bay of Pigs Invasion (April 17th, 1961)
The Bay of Pigs operation was originally planned by Eisenhower and planned for using 1,600 Cuban exiles living in Florida in a surprise attack against Cuba. The plan was that the Cuban exiles would create a revolution within 2 days and overthrow Castro. Against his better judgment Kennedy approved the plan.
· Initially planned by Eisenhower to counter Castro regime
· The CIA trained 1600 Cuban exiles were defeated in three days
· Used, 7 ships (2 owned by United Fruit Company)
· Joint Chiefs urged air and ground support, Kennedy refused at last minute
· The Joint Chiefs castigated Kennedy, telling him “Eisenhower would have done it!”
The Bay of Pigs debacle was a huge embarrassment for the young president. The global community condemned the actions of a large super power such as the US attacking a small island country in a covert operation.
Kennedy would never again trust the Joint Chiefs. The Joint Chiefs and the Miami-based CIA would never forgive Kennedy for suspending air support at the last minute.
Once Kennedy realized the type of activities the CIA was engaged in around the world (the agency had moved far beyond intelligence gathering and was subverting democratic elections and overthrowing government leaders) and was operating above the authority of the White House, he was outraged.
Kennedy fired Director Allen Dulles, placed all overseas CIA personnel under the State Department supervision, and threatened to “…splinter the CIA into a thousand pieces and scatter it into the winds.”
Che Guevara was Castro's 1st Lieutenant, left Cuba in 1965 and was eventually killed by CIA backed forces in Bolivia while fighting in a revolution
"There was no person more feared by the company (CIA) than Che Guevara because he had the capacity and charisma necessary to direct the struggle against the political repression of the traditional hierarchies in power in the countries of Latin America."
—Phillip Agee, CIA agent, later defected to Cuba
It's one thing to win a revolution, it's quite another to run a country
Like all small revolutionary countries (including the US in 1776) allying with a large empire is necessary in order to establish trade and to acquire military support (see French Navy in the American Revolution) to win freedom from a larger empire or to keep a larger empire from taking it.
Many revolutionaries fail when transitioning from revolution to long term government stability (history is full of them, remember the Egyptian Revolution of 2011?) —in short, who is going to replace the leader that is being overthrown and will the replacement become dictatorial?
What made the American Revolution truly exceptional was that George Washington walked away from power after two terms and allowed the democratic process to continue.
The great French general, Napoleon Bonaparte, who took over the French Revolution and turned it into a military movement, on his death bed said…."they wanted me to be a George Washington, but I was unable to give up the sword."
Fidel Castro kept Cuba in a continual state of revolution, although as the decades passed, Fidel became the biggest enemy to the liberties of his own people. Cuba, although it started out with great promise after the Cuban Revolution of 1959 (it had the highest literacy rates in the Western Hemisphere and free health care) slowly declined into a totalitarian state.
Castro outlawed rival political parties, jailed political opponents, and eventually it became illegal to leave the island-nation. To this day, in Cuba, people speak in hushed tones when criticizing the government. It's still remarkable he was able to stay in power for over 50 years, 90 miles away from the shores of the US.
US policies have pushed Central and Latin American countries to the far left
Why did Fidel refuse to give up power? He believed that whomever the next leader was, that they would be co-opted or overthrown by the CIA so he refused to step aside. The late Hugo Chavez of Venezuela did the same.
In a way, the incessant infiltration by the CIA into Latin American countries like Guatemala, Chile, Cuba, Bolivia, and Venezuela has made these countries see CIA agents "behind every tree." So the specter of American intelligence is forever looming in these countries due to to activity of the CIA throughout the second half of the 20th century.
Thesis: Easily identifiable, plausible, novel, sophisticated, insightful, crystal clear. Connects well with paper title.
Structure: Evident, understandable, appropriate thesis. Excellent transitions from point to point. Solid topic sentences.
Use of evidence: Primary source information used to buttress every point.
Analysis: Author clearly relates evidence to "mini-thesis" (topic sentence); analysis is fresh and exciting, posing new ways to think of the material. Work displays critical thinking and avoids simplistic description or summary of information.
Logic and argumentation: All ideas in the paper flow logically; the argument is identifiable, reasonable, and sound. Mechanics: Sentence structure, grammar, and diction excellent; correct use of punctuation; minimal to no spelling errors; absolutely no run-on sentences or comma splices. Conforms in every way to format requirements.
Thesis: Promising, but may be slightly unclear, or lacking in insight or originality. Paper title does not connect as well with thesis or is not as interesting.
Structure: Generally clear and appropriate, though may wander occasionally. May have a few unclear transitions, or a few paragraphs without strong topic sentences.
Use of evidence: Examples used to support most points.
Analysis: Evidence often related to mini-thesis. Some description, but more critical thinking.
Logic and argumentation: Argument of paper is clear, usually flows logically and makes sense.
Mechanics: Sentence structure, grammar, and diction strong despite occasional lapses; punctuation often used correctly. Some (minor) spelling errors; Conforms in every way to format requirements.
Thesis: May be unclear (contain many vague terms), appear unoriginal, or offer relatively little that is new; provides little around which to structure the paper. Paper title and thesis do not connect well or title is unimaginative.
Structure: Unclear, often wanders or jumps around. Few or weak transitions, many paragraphs without topic sentences.
Use of evidence: Examples used to support some points.
Analysis: Quotes appear often without analysis relating them to mini-thesis (or there is a weak mini-thesis to support), or analysis offers nothing beyond the quote. Even balance between critical thinking and description.
Logic and argumentation: Logic may often fail, or argument may often be unclear.
Mechanics: Problems in sentence structure, grammar, and diction (usually not major). Some errors in punctuation and spelling. May have some run-on sentences or comma splices. Conforms in almost every way to format requirements.
Thesis: Difficult to identify at all, may be bland restatement of obvious point.
Structure: Unclear, often because thesis is non-existent. Transitions confusing and unclear. Few topic sentences.
Use of evidence: Very few or very weak examples.
Analysis: Very little or very weak attempt to relate evidence to argument; may be no identifiable argument, or no evidence to relate it to. More description than critical thinking.
Logic and argumentation: Ideas do not flow, usually because there is no argument to support. Simplistic view of topic.
Mechanics: Big problems in sentence structure, grammar, and diction. Frequent major errors in punctuation and spelling. May have many run-on sentences and comma splices. Does not conform to format requirements.
Shows obviously minimal lack of effort or comprehension of the assignment. Very difficult to understand owing to major problems with mechanics, structure, and analysis. Has no identifiable thesis, or utterly incompetent thesis. Does not follow paper guidelines for length and format.
Okay…probably too much information!
The Cuban Missile Crisis was a 13 day international "crisis" ignited by the deployment nuclear weapons on the island of Cuba by the Soviet Union. We now know that two of the nuclear installation were fully operable and contained missiles with strike capability anywhere in the US with the exception of the extreme Northwest.
John F. Kennedy would be personally transformed as result of the several close calls with the Soviet Union, close calls that almost resulted in nuclear holocaust for both the United States and the Soviet Union. Kennedy found himself caught on an international chess board, where nuclear missiles serve as the game pieces!
OCT. 16, 1962: President Kennedy is shown photos of nuclear installations taken by an American U-2 spy plane on an aerial reconnaissance mission over Cuba
Why did Khrushchev sell nuclear weapons to Castro? The US had recently placed Jupiter missiles in Turkey (300 miles from the USSR). So the Soviet leader placed these weapons in Cuba in response to the missiles in Turkey and to protect Cuba from any attack from the US.
Khrushchev told his staff that it's time time to give Americans “a little bit of their own medicine.”
Kennedy pondered Soviet motives:
“What is the advantage of” putting ballistic missiles in Cuba he asked his advisors. “It’s just as if we suddenly began to put a major number of MRBMs in Turkey. Now that would be…dangerous, I would think.”
Bundy replied, “Well we did it, Mr. President.”
Why did Castro purchase these weapons from the Soviet Union? As a deterrent against any future attack by the US against Cuba. Castro and other Cuban leaders were convinced that a future attack against Cuba by the US was imminent. The CIA had already planted explosives on two different shipments of weapons from Europe to Cuba–both ignited in Cuban harbors. Considering the continued assassination attempts on Castro's life by the US, the Cubans had plausible reasons to be concerned.
A HUGE RISK
The placement of these missiles in Cuba was a tremendous gamble for Nikita Khrushchev. It created several dangerous scenarios:
· If Castro decided to use these weapons against the US in an unprovoked attack against the US, and the US discovers that they were purchased from the USSR, then it's a possible war with the Russians.
· Even if Castro was able to fire a couple of the missiles before the US responded, Cuba would most assuredly be annihilated by the US in a nuclear exchange
· If Castro chooses not to launch the missiles, and the US discovers them, Cuba may be destroyed with a nuclear attack by the US, which almost happened!
· For the US, a forceful reaction from the US may bring about an aggressive response from the USSR, which means WWIII.
· For the US, if Russian soldiers are killed in a preemptive attack against the missile installations, it would mean certain war with the Soviet Union.
While the Oval Office debates the proper American response, 19 freighters have been dispatched from the Soviet Union on their way to Cuba, and they're not carrying rice and potatoes, the ships are carrying war materials, including nuclear weapons.
Joint Chiefs' suggestions:
· Strategic Airstrikes (of missile installations only)
· General Air strike (of missile installations and other Cuban sites)
· General invasion of Cuba (using land and air forces)
· Curtis LeMay's suggestion "Fry ‘em!" [with nuclear weapons]
All of these scenarios involved one dangerous element: If Russian soldiers are killed in an any type of attack, it risks a nuclear confrontation with the USSR with apocalyptic consequences.
Kennedy was shocked when he asked the Joint Chiefs how the Russians would respond to such an invasion and LeMay reassured that the Soviets would not respond to such an attack. Kennedy was in disbelief, especially when there were Russian soldiers in Cuba who would be killed in such a bombing.
(LeMay not only suggested using nuclear weapons against Cuba, but also wanted to take advantage of this time not only to take out Castro but to "wipe out entire Soviet Union.”)
Former CEO of Ford Motor, Secretary of State, Robert S. McNamara advises President Kennedy.
McNamara, must have been a student of history, because he came up with a response that replicated a naval maneuver that was performed in Cuba during the the Spanish-American war in 1898. The US would surround Cuba with naval ships (called a quarantine and technically an act war) and force the Russians to run through the naval barricade, thus forcing them to play the part of the aggressor.
· Kennedy, against the advice of the Joint Chiefs chooses to use a Blockade
(outraged, the Joint Chiefs compared the blockade to the appeasement of Hitler at Munich!)
Kennedy and the Joint Chiefs
There was already mistrust between JFK (and his Attorney General, brother Bobby) and the Principle Chiefs from the Bay of Pigs disaster, and they outraged at Kenny's choice to use a barricade. They believe Kennedy, unlike Eisenhower, was not really a military man and his Secretary of State (who was also from the civilian sector) were putting American in great danger. Kennedy, on the hand, thought that the overt aggression of the Joint Chiefs were the ones putting America in danger. They were at odds with each other.
“If we listen to them [Joint Chiefs] and do what they tell us to do, none of us will be alive to tell them that they were wrong.” JFK
OCT 22– President Kennedy informs the American people of a possible show-down with the Soviet Union
· Strategic Air Command declared DEFCON 2
· Defensive Condition Readiness
· declared by General Thomas Power, Kennedy was not consulted
· Prepared to strike targets in the Soviet Union
· Mobilization of troops along Florida coast
· Avoided putting message in code, so Soviets could decipher it
· SAC airborne fleet prepared to attack with 3,000 nuclear weapons
US Ambassador to the United Nations, Adlai Stevenson, shows international delegates at the UN, the reconnaissance photos of Soviet missiles in Cuba–right after the Russian delegate denied having "offensive weapons" in Cuba—international support for the US was galvanized instantly after proof of Russian wrong doing.
A desperate message from Nikita Khrushchev:
at this point, Historians say that Khrushchev was staying awaken for days on end and slept in his office with his suit on–the situation was becoming desperate)
· Khrushchev (veteran of the Russian Revolution and WWII) sent Kennedy what McNamara described “as the most extraordinary diplomatic message I have ever seen.”
· Khrushchev warned that the two countries were headed unavoidably into war
“if war should indeed break out, then it would not be in our power to stop it…war ends when it has rolled through cities and villages, everywhere sowing death and destruction.”
Khrushchev to Kennedy
Not known until years later, but Castro sent a letter to Khrushchev urging him to strike the US with Nuclear weapons first, in the event that the US attacked Cuba!!
We are a professional custom writing website. If you have searched a question and bumped into our website just know you are in the right place to get help in your coursework.
Yes. We have posted over our previous orders to display our experience. Since we have done this question before, we can also do it for you. To make sure we do it perfectly, please fill our Order Form. Filling the order form correctly will assist our team in referencing, specifications and future communication.
2. Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER INFORMATION" section and click “PRICE CALCULATION” at the bottom to calculate your order price.
3. Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
4. Click “FINAL STEP” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
5. From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.
Need this assignment or any other paper?
Click here and claim 25% off
Discount code SAVE25